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Artificial insemination of birds by the intraperitoneal route. A study in sex physiology of pigeons and fowls with reports upon a modified technique of semen collection, and a new technique of insemination, and observations on the spermatozoa in the genital organs of the fowl hen



Artificial insemination of birds by the intraperitoneal route. A study in sex physiology of pigeons and fowls with reports upon a modified technique of semen collection, and a new technique of insemination, and observations on the spermatozoa in the genital organs of the fowl hen



Onderstepoort Jour Vet Res Suppl 1: 3-212



Pigeon cocks were held upside down between the operator's knees and the left thumb and forefinger grasped the vent in the milking procedure with some pressure on the abdomen while the right hand aspirated the semen with a glass syringe. With fowl cocks the bird was restrained on the operator's knees with a wire loop from the bird's legs to a stirrup for the operator's right foot. After massage of the abdomen with the right hand, the left hand was used for a milking effect grasping the copulatory organ deep in the walls of the abdomen and leaving the right hand free to collect the semen in the receptacle. Semen was injd. intraperito-neally over the obturator notch between the ischium and the posterior process of the pubic bone. Such insemination did not seriously affect egg production nor health, although some birds were lost with peritonitis. Onset of fertility was usually immediate; the first ovum liberated after insemination was fertile. The length of the fertility period was similar by this means to that of others who separated cocks from hens but in 45 cases (10.78 days) slightly less than in 13 controls fertilized by coitus or artificial insemination per vaginam (13.85 days). The max. of 25 days exceeded by 3 days the max. reported locally in controls. The no. of eggs fertilized by one injn. (4.78) averaged less than controls (6.69) but the max. on record (14 eggs) was exceeded (16, 15, 15). The fertility of eggs by this method (82.7%) and controls (82.%) was similar; no difference was noted in hatchability. All-glass instruments with relatively wide (1 mm.) lumen and with blunt penetrating ends were most suitable for intraperitoneal insemination. In cock birds 292 consecutive semen collections (98.6% success) were made with an average of 0.45 cc. semen. The fertility of semen samples used by the intraperitoneal route was higher than when introduced into the vagina. Larger doses of semen were followed by better fertility and a longer fertile period. Storage up to 2 hrs. under liquid paraffin had little effect but further storage and dilution lowered fertility. Mixed samples of semen tended to be reduced to the quality of the poorest component. Deposition of semen in the region of the ovary was more successful in producing fertility than near the point of entry. The fertilizing quality of semen was more important than the route of introduction or the amount used if above 0.1 cc. Using the capillary action of fine glass tubes, spermatozoa could be demonstrated only in the lumen of the infundibulum (3-14 da. following insemination by various methods). Sperm concns. were found 4, 6, and 8 days after intraperitoneal insemination or copulation in the mucosa of the chalaziferous region of the infundibulum (sperm-nests).

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