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Formalin-treated UV-inactivated SARS coronavirus vaccine retains its immunogenicity and promotes Th2-type immune responses

Formalin-treated UV-inactivated SARS coronavirus vaccine retains its immunogenicity and promotes Th2-type immune responses

Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 60(2-3): 106-112

The demand for rapid and simple development of a vaccine against a newly emerging infectious disease is increasing worldwide. We previously revealed that UV-inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) virions (UV-V) elicited high levels of humoral immunity and a weak ThO response in mice immunized subcutaneously. To ensure the safety of such a whole inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine, we additionally treated the UV-V vaccine with formalin, resulting in the UV-F-V vaccine. Analysis of the immunogenicity of the UV-F-V+alum vaccine in mice revealed that it generated comparable neutralizing serum anti-SARS-CoV IgG antibody levels as the UV-V+alum vaccine. Moreover, both vaccines induced similar frequencies of anti-SARS-CoV IgG antibody-producing cells in bone marrow. Interestingly, the UV-F-V vaccine induced fewer IgG(2a) subtype antibodies and higher interleukin-4 production in vaccinated mice than did UV-V. Thus, UV-F-V imposes a Th2-type bias on the immune response, unlike UV-V. We propose here that doublyinactivated SARS-CoV virions by UV and fon-nalin constitute a safe vaccine that may effectively induce neutralizing antibodies in humans.

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Accession: 013716041

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PMID: 17515642

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