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Cranial nerves of Labeo rohita (Ham.)
Cytogenetic analysis of ZZWW triploid silkworm (Bombyx mori)
Effectiveness of posterior crossbite correction during the mixed dentition
Classification of liver cirrhosis based on parenchymal echo patterns and its clinical usefulness for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis
The identity of the lipstick mold of cultivated mushrooms agaricus bisporus
Inhibition of haemolytic activity of snake and scorpion venom by date extract
Effectiveness of iron amino acid chelate on the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adolescents
Furunculosis and pseudofurunculosis
Some Biological Applications of Organometallic Compounds
Stassanisation of Milk
Pulse rate, respiration, and body temperature of Philippine carabaos
Sports fans: measuring degree of identification with their team
Enterobacter amnigenus. An unusual human pathogen
Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem
Therapy for acne with saccharomyces boulardii
Comparison of rice bran and maize bran as feeds for growing and fattening pigs
The Difil Test kit for detection of canine heartworm microfilariae
Gafner Mini-skidder
Vegetable protein for combating protein malnutrition in developing countries
Comparative morphology of fish olfactory epithelium part 6 siluriformes
Mycotechnology: the role of fungi in biotechnology
On the nature and role of vivotoxins in plant disease
A study on compatibility of some insecticides with a fungicide on small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.)
Evidence for Late Cretaceous N-S dextral shear in the west-central crystalline core, North Cascades, Washington
Advantages and disadvantages of bordeaux mixture and of lime-sulphur used on apples in the growing season

On the nature and role of vivotoxins in plant disease


On the nature and role of vivotoxins in plant disease



Phytopath 43(5): 229-235



A vivotoxin is defined as a substance produced in the infected host by the pathogen and/or its host, which functions in the production of disease but is not itself the initial inciting agent of disease. Koch's postulates are modified to establish criteria for proving the pathogenicity of vivotoxins. These criteria are (a) reproducible separation from the sick plant, (b) purification, and (c) reproduction of at least a portion of the disease syndrome when the toxin is placed in a healthy plant. Vivotoxity has been established in a few instances which are discussed. The problem of demonstrating vivotoxicity of a toxin is discussed in terms of lycomarasmin. Evidence is presented which indicates that if lycomarasmin is functional, it probably does not play a primary role in the pathology of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Vivotoxins can act by any mechanism by which other poisons affect cells. Toxins can act physically by altering cellular permeability and by occluding the conducting elements of the vascular system. Polysaccharides commonly are a cause of the latter. The modes of chemical action are more varied. Extracellular enzymes are well established as vivotoxins, and it is suggested that the vascular discoloration characteristic of certain wilt diseases results from enzymic attack of vascular tissue. Competitive inhibitors include ethylene, an example of a vivotoxin which the host can produce in response to injury by the pathogen. Competitive inhibition of methionine utilization has been established as a modus operandi for the wildfire vivotoxin. Inhibition by a vivotoxin may depend on a specific affinity for cations or for sulfhydryl groups. Patulin is cited as an example of the latter. Non-competitive inhibition is illustrated by lycomarasmin, which acts as an antimetabolite for the growth factor strepogenin.

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