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Biological control of weeds in Canada, 1959-1968.30. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Canada thistle (Compositae)



Biological control of weeds in Canada, 1959-1968.30. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Canada thistle (Compositae)



Technical Communication, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control 4: 79-83. Bibl. 22



The pest status of C. arvense as a weed, the background to attempts at biological control and releases and recoveries of control insects are reviewed and control attempts evaluated. The ecologies of Altica carduorum (Col. : Chrysomelidae) Ceutorhynchus litura (Col. : Curculionidae) and Urophora cardui (Dip. : Trypetidae) are described. No further releases of A. carduorum are recommended because only 14 "heat days" occur in S. Ontario compared with 30 "heat days" in its native European habitat.

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