Frost damage in forest trees (IX) . Frost hardiness in Todo Fir (Abies sachalinensis (Fr. Schm.) and White Spruce (Picea glauca (Voss.)
Takatoi, I.; Watanabe, T.; Kamada, U.
Ann. Rep. For. Exp. Sta., Hokkaido 1966. 56-80
Studies on the frost hardiness of 24-year-old (a) Abies sachalinensis and (b) Picea glauca showed that buds could tolerate temperatures of -3 degrees C. (a) and -5 degrees (b) in Sept., decreasing to -30 degrees in both species by Jan. and Feb. but rising again thereafter. Hardiness of twigs was less than that of buds until mid- Nov., but the reverse was true later. Water content of needles was 61-63% in mid-Sept. decreasing to ca. 55% by Oct. and remaining constant thereafter until April.