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The basis of the differential phytotoxicity of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-iodo-benzonitrile. 1. The influence of spray retention and plant morphology



The basis of the differential phytotoxicity of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-iodo-benzonitrile. 1. The influence of spray retention and plant morphology



Weed Res, 7: 3, 220-33. Bibl. 14



The influence of physical and morphological factors on the selectivity of ioxynil was investigated in glasshouse experiments in which ioxynil with and without a surfactant was applied at 0.015, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 kg/ha to mustard and pea plants in the 2-leaf stage and at 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 kg/ha to barley in the 3-leaf stage. With all species, increasing the ioxynil dose increased the reduction in growth, the greatest reduction of 96% occurring in mustard treated at 0.12 kg/ha; barley showed only a 40% growth reduction when treated at 2 kg/ha. Without surfactant (Tween 20), mustard plants retained 26 times more ioxynil than barley plants. Ioxynil had little or no toxic effect on barley and pea plants treated without surfactant, suggesting that poor spray retention was an important factor in their relative tolerance. Retention studies showed that the amount of ioxynil retained by leaves of mustard was proportional to the concn applied and was not affected by the surface tension of the spray solution as modified by the inclusion of a surfactant. However, decreasing the surface tension of the solution by the addition of 0.1 or 1 % surfactant gave significant increases in retention in peas and especially in barley with its upright waxy leaves. Leaf area and leaf angle also affected differences in retention between species, the leaf area per pot being greatest in mustard intermediate in barley, and least in pea. Experiments in which the leaf angle was varied confirmed that the normal upright habit of barley leaves provides protection against spray retention. It was concluded that the effect of ioxynil on a given species is influenced mainly by the amount retained. In further experiments applications were made either to the whole exposed surface of the plant or to the leaves only to assess the influence of morphology on response to ioxynil.

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Accession: 014718501

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DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.1967.tb01373.x



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