+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

An overview of immunological and genetic methods for detecting swine coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine respiratory coronavirus in tissues



An overview of immunological and genetic methods for detecting swine coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine respiratory coronavirus in tissues



Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 412: 37-46



Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is an enteric disease of swine caused by a coronavirus, designated as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Commonly used methods for TGEV detection include viral isolation and detection of the viral antigen by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), immunoperoxidase, and immunogold silver staining. Each of these techniques has some advantages and disadvantages. In general IFA and immunohistochemistry are preferred over viral isolation as TGEV isolation is not very reliable because not all field isolates replicate in cell cultures. The diagnosis of TGEV has become more complicated since the emergence of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). PRCV is believed to be a TGEV mutant, and can not be easily differentiated from TGEV by immunological tests. Nucleic acid probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have successfully been used to detect and differentiate these viruses. These techniques can detect viral nucleic acids in the specimen but do not provide information on the cell types infected by these viruses. Recently we have developed isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization techniques (ISH) for the detection of these viral nucleic acids in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Furthermore, this procedure can differentiate between TGEV- and PRCV-infected cells. By ISH, TGEV is detected in the mature absorptive enterocytes of tissues infected by TGEV and the crypt epithelial cells are also infected but to a lesser extent. For PRCV, the main infected cells are epithelial cells of the bronchioles, type II pneumocytes, and alveolar and septal macrophages. ISH is an excellent tool for studying molecular pathogenesis of these two viruses especially when used in combination with immunohistochemistry.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 015027882

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9191988


Related references

In situ hybridization technique for the detection of swine enteric and respiratory coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Journal of Virological Methods 56(2): 149-160, 1996

Sequence analysis of the leader rna of two porcine coronaviruses transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus. Virus Genes 4(4): 289-302, 1990

Differentiation of transmissible gastroenteritis virus from porcine respiratory coronavirus and other antigenically related coronaviruses by using cDNA probes specific for the 5' region of the S glycoprotein gene. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 29(1): 215-218, 1991

Immunity to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus infections in swine. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 43(1-3): 89-97, 1994

Antigenic differentiation between transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine and a related porcine respiratory coronavirus. Journal of General Virology 69: 1725-1730, 1988

Cellular immune responses of pigs after primary inoculation with porcine respiratory coronavirus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus and challenge with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology 48(1-2): 35-54, 1995

Application of a block ELISA for measuring antibodies to swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 26(12): 24-25, 1996

Differential diagnosis of swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus using fixed cell blocking ELISA. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine 23(12): 5-7, 1997

Genetic analysis of porcine respiratory coronavirus, an attenuated variant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Journal of Virology 65(6): 3369-3373, 1991

Complete genomic sequences, a key residue in the spike protein and deletions in nonstructural protein 3b of US strains of the virulent and attenuated coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus. Virology 358(2): 424-435, 2007

Cultivation techniques for animal coronaviruses: Emphasis on feline infectious peritonitis virus, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus. Methods in Cell Science 11(2): 95-100, 1988

Molecular characterization and pathogenesis of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) field isolates co-circulating in a swine herd. Archives of Virology 145(6): 1133-1147, 2000

Isotype-specific antibody-secreting cells to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus in gut- and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues of suckling pigs. Journal of Immunology 150(9): 3990-4000, 1993

Porcine respiratory coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Agri-Practice 10(2): 17-21, 1989

Competition ELISA, using monoclonal antibodies to the transmissible gastroenteritis antibodies to the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) S protein, for serologic differentiation of pigs infected with TGEV or porcine respiratory coronavirus. American journal of veterinary research 54(2): 254-259, 1993