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Effect of flour extraction rate on white and red winter wheat flour compositions and tortilla texture


Effect of flour extraction rate on white and red winter wheat flour compositions and tortilla texture



Cereal Chemistry 84(3): 207-213



ISSN/ISBN: 0009-0352

DOI: 10.1094/cchem-84-3-0207

Wheat flours commercially produced at 74, 80, and 100% extraction rates made from hard white winter wheat (WWF) and hard red winter wheat (WRF) were used to produce tortillas at a commercial-scale level. Flour characteristics for moisture, dry gluten, protein, ash, sedimentation volume, falling number, starch damage, and particle-size distribution were obtained. Farinograms and alveograms were also obtained for flour-water dough. A typical northern Mexican formula was used in the laboratory to test the tortilla-making properties of the flours. Then commercial-scale tortilla-baking trials were run on each flour. The baked tortillas were stored at room and refrigeration temperatures for 0, 1, 2, and 3 days. Maximum stress and rollability were measured every day. Tortilla moisture, color, diameter, weight, and thickness were measured for each treatment. Finally, tortilla acceptability was tested by an untrained sensory panel. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed on the data. WWF had higher protein content, dry gluten, sedimentation volume, and water absorption than the WRF. The WWF was the strongest flour based on farinograph development time and alveograph deformation work. It also produced the most extensible dough measured with the alveograph (P/L). Flour protein and ash contents, water absorption, and tenacity increased directly with the flour extraction rate. Both WWF and WRF performed well in commercial-scale baking trials of tortillas. Tortillas made with both types of flours at 74 and 80% extraction rates had the best firmness and rollability. However, tortillas made with WWF 80% had the best color (highest L value). Tortillas prepared with 100% extraction rate flour were also well accepted by the sensory panel, had good textural characteristics, and became only slightly firm and slightly less rollable after three days of storage at room temperature.

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