+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude

The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude

Environmental Health Perspectives 115(8): 1132-1139

BACKGROUND: Inadequate sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake can result in vitamin D insufficiency. However, limited data are available on actual vitamin D status and predictors in healthy individuals in different regions and by season.METHODS: We compared vitamin D status [25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)DI in people < 60 years of age using data from cross-sectional studies of three regions across Australia: southeast Queensland (27 degrees S; 167 females and 211 males), Geelong region (38 degrees S; 561 females), and Tasmania (43 degrees S; 432 females and 298 males).RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<= 50 nmol/L) in women in winter/spring was 40.5% in southeast Queensland, 37.4% in the Geelong region, and 67.3% in Tasmania. Season, simulated maximum daily duration of vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin D effective daily dose each explained around 14% of the variation in 25(OH)D. Although latitude explained only 3.9% of the variation, a decrease in average 25(OH)D of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.3) nmol/L for every degree increase in latitude may be clinically relevant. In some months, we found a high insufficiency or even deficiency when sun exposure protection would be recommended on the basis of the simulated ultraviolet index.CONCLUSION: Vitamin D insufficiency is common over a wide latitude range in Australia. Season appears to be more important than latitude, but both accounted for less than one-fifth of the variation in serum 25(OH)D levels, highlighting the importance of behavioral factors. Current sun exposure guidelines do not seem to fully prevent vitamin D insufficiency, and consideration should be given to their modification or to pursuing other means to achieve vitamin D adequacy.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 017396583

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 17687438

DOI: 10.1289/ehp.9937

Related references

The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency across Australian Populations Is Only Partly Explained by Season and Latitude. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(8): 1132-1139, 2007

The prevalence of headache may be related with the latitude: a possible role of Vitamin D insufficiency?. Journal of Headache and Pain 11(4): 301-307, 2010

Low Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Nepalese Infants Despite High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency among Their Mothers. Nutrients 8(12):, 2016

Spuriously high prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed by HbA(1c) in young indians partly explained by hematological factors and iron deficiency anemia. Diabetes Care 35(4): 797-802, 2012

Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in women of reproductive age living in northern latitude. European Journal of Endocrinology 163(5): 819-824, 2010

Low vitamin D deficiency in Irish toddlers despite northerly latitude and a high prevalence of inadequate intakes. European Journal of Nutrition 57(2): 783-794, 2018

Prevalence of dental caries in 4- to 5-year-old children partly explained by presence of salivary mutans streptococci. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31(1): 66-70, 1993

The influence of latitude on the concentration of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in Australian red meat. Food Chemistry 140(3): 432-435, 2013

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in athletes and dancers. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 20(5): 368-371, 2010

Reproduction, growth, and development in high-latitude and low-latitude populations of Peromyscus leucopus (Rodentia). Journal of Mammalogy 591: 69-83, 1978

High latitude regulation of low latitude thermocline ventilation and planktic foraminifer populations across glacial-interglacial cycles. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 311.1-2, 2011

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant Korean women: the first trimester and the winter season as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Nutrients 7(5): 3427-3448, 2015

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the elderly population in Argentina. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research 17(Suppl 1): S354, 2002

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in professional handball athletes. Physician and Sportsmedicine 47(1): 71-77, 2019

High prevalence of vitamin B-12 insufficiency in patients with Crohn's disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26(6): 1076-1081, 2017