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Vicia cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program



Vicia cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program



Mutation Research 99(3): 257-271



Vicia root-tip mitotic and pollen mother-cell meiotic tests are two major kinds of cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. According to the present review, 81 of 85 earlier studies used mitotic tests to determine the frequencies of chromosome or chromatid aberrations and/or sister-chromatid exchange from root-tip meristematic cells; only 4 used meiotic tests to determine the frequencies of chromosome aberration from pollen mother cells. Treatment of root-tip meristem can be done by allowing the newly germinated roots to absorb the chemical mutagens from a water solution. Pollen mother cells can be treated by spraying the solution or pipetting the liquid over the flower buds. After an appropriate recovery time, the samples are fixed and stained, and the slides are prepared for metaphase or anaphase figures for scoring aberration frequencies. Slides for meiotic tests are prepared for metaphase I and/or Anaphase I stages for scoring chromosome aberration frequencies. Results of both cytogenetic tests should be expressed in terms of number of breaks per cell or per 100 cells. Test results of 76 chemicals from 32 classes in this review indicate that the Vicia root-tip mitotic test is reliable, efficient, and relatively inexpensive. These results also reveal that antibiotics are most frequently studied, followed by alkyl sulfones, pyrimidine, and purine derivatives. Of all the agents studied through root-tip mitotic tests, about 90% gave positive responses; antibiotics (phleomycin and bleomycin) had very high mutagenicity (less than 1 ppm gave positive response).

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Accession: 017647667

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 7177153

DOI: 10.1016/0165-1110(82)90045-8


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