Section 18

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Walker, P.R.; Sikorska, M.; Whitfield, J.F. 1986: Chromatin structure. Nuclease digestion profiles reflect intermediate stages in the folding of the 30-nm fiber rather than the existence of subunit beads. Journal of Biological Chemistry 261(15): 7044-7051
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Mcniven, M.A.; Porter, K.R. 1984: Chromatophores--models for studying cytomatrix translocations. Journal of Cell Biology 99(1 Pt 2): 152s-158s
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Anonymous 1983: Chromium status and serum lipids. Nutrition reviews 41(10): 307-310
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Ralph, R.K.; Hancock, R. 1985: Chromosomal DNA fragments from mouse cells exposed to an intercalating agent containing a 175-kdalton terminal polypeptide. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 63: 0-3
Roberts, M.C.; Moncla, B.; Kenny, G.E. 1987: Chromosomal DNA probes for the identification of Bacteroides species. Journal of General Microbiology 133(6): 1423-1430
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Hashimoto, M.; Tanabe, Y.; Fujii, Y. 2005: Chronic Administration of Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates the Impairment of Spatial Cognition Learning Ability in Amyloid b-Infused Rats. The Journal of Nutrition 135(3): 9-55
Ribeiro, C.M.Pedrosa.; Paradiso, A.M.; Schwab, U.; Perez-Vilar, J.; Jones, L.; O'neal, W.; Boucher, R.C. 2005: Chronic airway infection/inflammation induces a Ca2+i-dependent hyperinflammatory response in human cystic fibrosis airway epithelia. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280(18): 17798-17806
Sherpa, A.K.; Albertine, K.H.; Penney, D.G.; Thompkins, B.; Lahiri, S. 1989: Chronic CO exposure stimulates erythropoiesis but not glomus cell growth. Journal of Applied Physiology 67(4): 1383-1387
Lahiri, S.; Penney, D.G.; Mokashi, A.; Albertine, K.H. 1989: Chronic CO inhalation and carotid body catecholamines: testing of hypotheses. Journal of Applied Physiology 67(1): 239-242
Yamaji, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Iyori, M. 1992: Chronic DOC treatment enhances Na+-H+ exchanger activity of b-intercalated cells in rabbit CCD. American Journal of Physiology 262: 12-17
Tschumperlin, D.J.; Drazen, J.M. 2006: Chronic effects of mechanical force on airways. Annual Review of Physiology 68: 563-583
Mcmullen, M.R.; Cocuzzi, E.; Hatzoglou, M. 2003: Chronic Ethanol Exposure Increases the Binding of HuR to the TNFa 3'-Untranslated Region in Macrophages. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278(40): 333-341
Chen, J.; Kelz, M.B.; Hope, B.T. 1997: Chronic Fos-related antigens: stable variants of DFosB induced in brain by chronic treatments. Journal of Neuroscience 17: 33-41
Shaftel, S.S.; Carlson, T.; Olschowka, J.A. 2007: Chronic Interleukin-1b Expression in Mouse Brain Leads to Leukocyte Infiltration and Neutrophil-Independent Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability without Overt Neurodegeneration. Journal of Neuroscience 27(35): 01-9
Levi, M.; McDonald, L.A.; Preisig, P.A.; Alpern, R.J. 1991: Chronic K depletion stimulates rat renal brush-border membrane Na-citrate cotransporter. American Journal of Physiology 261(5 Part 2): F767-F773
Bhardwaj, V.; Kanagawa, O.; Swanson, P.E.; Unanue, E.R. 1998: Chronic Listeria infection in SCID mice: requirements for the carrier state and the dual role of T cells in transferring protection or suppression. Journal of Immunology 160(1): 376-384
Nashmi, R.; Xiao, C.; Deshpande, P. 2007: Chronic Nicotine Cell Specifically Upregulates Functional a4* Nicotinic Receptors: Basis for Both Tolerance in Midbrain and Enhanced Long-Term Potentiation in Perforant Path. Journal of Neuroscience 27(31): 02-18
Ohama, T.; Hori, M.; Sato, K. 2003: Chronic Treatment with Interleukin-1b Attenuates Contractions by Decreasing the Activities of CPI-17 and MYPT-1 in Intestinal Smooth Muscle. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278(49): 794-804
Wong, G.T.; Manfra, D.; Poulet, F.M. 2004: Chronic Treatment with the c-Secretase Inhibitor LY-411,575 Inhibits b-Amyloid Peptide Production and Alters Lymphopoiesis and Intestinal Cell Differentiation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279(13): 876-882
Munhoz, C.D.; Lepsch, L.B.; Kawamoto, E.M. 2006: Chronic Unpredictable Stress Exacerbates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor-kB in the Frontal Cortex and Hippocampus via Glucocorticoid Secretion. Journal of Neuroscience 26(14): 13-20
Raoul, C.; Buhler, E.; Sadeghi, C.; Jacquier, A.; Aebischer, P.; Pettmann, B.; Henderson, C.E.; Haase, G. 2006: Chronic activation in presymptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice of a feedback loop involving Fas, Daxx, and FasL. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(15): 6007-6012
Sambandam, N.; Morabito, D.; Wagg, C. 2006: Chronic activation of PPARa is detrimental to cardiac recovery after ischemia. American Journal of Physiology 290(1): 7-H95
Toyonaga, T.; Hino, O.; Sugai, S. 1994: Chronic active hepatitis in transgenic mice expressing interferon-c in the liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91: 4-18
Morkin, E. 1987: Chronic adaptations in contractile proteins: genetic regulation. Annual Review of Physiology 49: 545-554
Warley, A.R.; Gutierrez, G. 1988: Chronic administration of sodium cyanate decreases O2 extraction ratio in dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology 64(4): 1584-1590
Jaruga, B.; Hong, F.; Kim, W.H. 2004: Chronic alcohol consumption accelerates liver injury in T cell-mediated hepatitis: alcohol disregulation of NF-kB and STAT3 signaling pathways. American Journal of Physiology 287(2): 71-G479
Saliaris, A.P.; Amado, L.C.; Minhas, K.M. 2007: Chronic allopurinol administration ameliorates maladaptive alterations in Ca2+ cycling proteins and b-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness in heart failure. American Journal of Physiology 292(3): 328-H1335
Cebrian, M.E.; Albores, A.; Garcia Vargas, G. 1994: Chronic arsenic poisoning in humans: the case of Mexico. Advances in Environmental Science and Techology 27 : 107
Wessels, M. 2003: Chronic arthritis and systemic amyloidosis in three goat kids associated with seroconversion to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Veterinary Record 152(10): 302-304
Gregorevic, P.; Ryall, J.G.; Plant, D.R. 2005: Chronic b-agonist administration affects cardiac function of adult but not old rats, independent of b-adrenoceptor density. American Journal of Physiology 289(1): 44-H349
Murphy, R.J.L.; Gardiner, P.F.; Rousseau, G. 1997: Chronic b-blockade increases skeletal muscle b-adrenergic-receptor density and enhances contractile force. Journal of Applied Physiology 83: 9-65
Kushner, S.A.; Unterwald, E.M. 2001: Chronic cocaine administration decreases the functional coupling of GABAB receptors in the rat ventral tegumental area as measured by baclofen-stimulated 35S-GTPcS binding. Life Sciences 69(9): 93-102
Gardner, H.M.; Carter, A.G.; Robertson, J.T.; Swanson, C.R. 1986: Chronic colic associated with volvulus of the large colon in a Grant's zebra. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189(9): 1187-1188
Meggs, L.G.; Huang, H.; Li, P. 1992: Chronic coronary arterial stenosis impairs a1-adrenoreceptor signaling and cardiac performance in rats. American Journal of Physiology 263: 29-38
Fournier, S.; Allard, M.; Gulemetova, R.; Joseph, V.; Kinkead, R. 2007: Chronic corticosterone elevation and sex-specific augmentation of the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats. Journal of Physiology 584(Part 3): 951-962
Rausell, E.; Cusick, C.G.; Taub, E. 1992: Chronic deafferentation in monkeys differentially affects nociceptive and nonnociceptive pathways distinguished by specific calcium-binding proteins and down-regulates c-aminobutyric acid type A receptors at thalamic levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89: 71-5
Lytle, R.Larry 1988: Chronic dental pain: possible benefits of food restriction and sodium ascorbate. The Journal of Applied Nutrition 40 Fall : 8
Scheuhammer, A.M. 1988: Chronic dietary toxicity of methylmercury in the zebra finch, Poephila guttata. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40(1): 123-130
Singh, S.P. 1998: Chronic disturbance, a principal cause of environmental degradation in developing countries. Environmental Conservation 25(1): 2
Kahler, S.C. 2005: Chronic dysfunction syndrome among manageable behavioral problems. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227(6): 3-4
Muhle, H.; Bellmann, B.; Takenaka, S. 1992: Chronic effects of intratracheally instilled nickel-containing particles in hamsters. Advances in Environmental Science and Techology 25 : 7-79
Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P. 1989: Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 43(3): 481-484
Barber, A.J.; Yu, P.H.; Boulton, A.A. 1993: Chronic effects of monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors on the behaviour of aged mice. Life Sciences 53(9): 739-747
Merrill, D.C.; Cowley, A.W. 1987: Chronic effects of vasopressin on fluid volume distribution in conscious dogs. American Journal of Physiology 252(1 Part 2): F26-F31
Cook, R.A.; Tappe, J.P. 1985: Chronic enteritis associated with Edwardsiella tarda infection in Rockhopper penguins. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187(11): 1219-1220
Swerczek, T.W. 1997: Chronic environmental cadmium toxicosis in horses and cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(10): 1229-1230
Messing, R.O.; Petersen, P.J.; Henrich, C.J. 1991: Chronic ethanol exposure increases levels of protein kinase C d and e and protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation in cultured neural cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266: 428-432
Shi, L.; Kishore, R.; Mcmullen, M.R. 2002: Chronic ethanol increases lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Egr-1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Contribution to enhanced tumor necrosis factor a production. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277(17): 777-785
Boyadjieva, N.; Dokur, M.; Advis, J.P. 2001: Chronic ethanol inhibits NK cell cytolytic activity: role of opioid peptide b-endorphin. Journal of Immunology 167(10): 45-52
Mullin, J.M.; Soler, A.Peralta; Laughlin, K.V. 1996: Chronic exposure of LLC-PK1 epithelia to the phorbol ester TPA produces polyp-like foci with leaky tight junctions and altered protein kinase C-a expression and localization. Experimental Cell Research 227: 22
Takehiro, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Shimodahira, M. 2005: Chronic exposure to b-hydroxybutyrate inhibits glucose-induced insulin release from pancreatic islets by decreasing NADH contents. American Journal of Physiology 288(2 pt 1): 72-E380
Sun, L.S.; Ursell, P.C.; Robinson, R.B. 1991: Chronic exposure to neuropeptide Y determines cardiac a1-adrenergic responsiveness. American Journal of Physiology 261: 69-73
Buisson, B.; Bertrand, D. 2001: Chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates the human a4b2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function. Journal of Neuroscience 21(6): 9
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Anonymous 1996: Chronic hepatic atrophy with nodular regeneration. Veterinary Medicine 91: 8
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Deluca, C.; Roulston, A.; Koromilas, A. 1996: Chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of myeloid cells disrupts the autoregulatory control of the NF-kB/Rel pathway via enhanced IkBa degradation. Journal of Virology 70: 83-93
Talor, Z.; Yang, W.C.; Shuffield, J.; Sack, E.; Arruda, J.A. 1987: Chronic hypercapnia enhances Vmax of Na-H antiporter of renal brush-border membranes. American Journal of Physiology 253(3 Part 2): F394-F400
Hribal, M.L.; Perego, L.; Lovari, S. 2003: Chronic hyperglycemia impairs insulin secretion by affecting insulin receptor expression, splicing, and signaling in RIN b cell line and human islets of Langerhans. The FASEB Journal 17(10): 40-2
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Cordova, H.R.; Kokko, J.P.; Marver, D. 1989: Chronic indomethacin increases rabbit cortical collecting tubule Na+-K+-ATPase activity. American Journal of Physiology 256(4 Part 2): F570-F576
Willuweit, A.; Sass, G.; Schöneberg, A.; Eisel, U.; Tiegs, G.; Clauss, M. 2001: Chronic inflammation and protection from acute hepatitis in transgenic mice expressing TNF in endothelial cells. Journal of Immunology 167(7): 3944-3952
Mizgerd, J.P.; Bullard, D.C.; Hicks, M.J.; Beaudet, A.L.; Doerschuk, C.M. 1999: Chronic inflammatory disease alters adhesion molecule requirements for acute neutrophil emigration in mouse skin. Journal of Immunology 162(9): 5444-5448
Sweep, C.G.J.; Van Der Meer, M.J.M.; Ross, H.Alec 1992: Chronic infusion of TNF-a reduces plasma T4 binding without affecting pituitary-thyroid activity in rats. American Journal of Physiology 263: 099-105
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Savransky, V.; Bevans, S.; Nanayakkara, A.; Li, J.; Smith, P.L.; Torbenson, M.S.; Polotsky, V.Y. 2007: Chronic intermittent hypoxia causes hepatitis in a mouse model of diet-induced fatty liver. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 293(4): G871-G877
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Bernstein, I.L.; Goehler, L.E. 1983: Chronic lithium chloride infusions: conditioned suppression of food intake and preference. Behavioral Neuroscience 97(2): 290-298
Colin, S.F.; Chang, H.C.; Mollner, S. 1991: Chronic lithium regulates the expression of adenylate cyclase and Gi-protein a subunit in rat cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88: 634-7
Sakata, T.; Watanabe, A.; Hobara, N.; Nagashima, H. 1987: Chronic liver injury in rats by carbon tetrachloride inhalation. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 38(6): 959-961
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Putman, C.T.; Dixon, W.T.; Pearcey, J.A.; Maclean, I.M.; Jendral, M.J.; Kiricsi, Mónika.; Murdoch, G.K.; Pette, D. 2004: Chronic low-frequency stimulation upregulates uncoupling protein-3 in transforming rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 287(6): R1419-R1426
Budzyn, K.; Marley, P.D.; Sobey, C.G. 2004: Chronic mevastatin modulates receptor-dependent vascular contraction in eNOS-deficient mice. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 287(2): R342-R348
Wojcikiewicz, R.J.; Nahorski, S.R. 1991: Chronic muscarinic stimulation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells suppresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate action. Parallel inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ mobilization and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266(33): 22234-22241
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Anonymous 2003: Chronic pain: Decreased activity starts vicious cycle of problems. DVM 34(12): , 4S-5S
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Anonymous 2004: Chronic renal failure causes difficult to pinpoint: The top 13 questions addressed. DVM: 12
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Harrison-Bernard, L.M.; Vari, R.C.; Holleman, W.H.; Trippodo, N.C.; Barbee, R.W. 1991: Chronic vs. acute hemodynamic effects of atrial natriuretic factor in conscious rats. American Journal of Physiology 260(1 Part 2): R247-R254
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