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Reaction of (bromoacetamido)nucleoside affinity labels with ribonuclease A: evidence for steric control of reaction specificity and alkylation rate

Reaction of (bromoacetamido)nucleoside affinity labels with ribonuclease A: evidence for steric control of reaction specificity and alkylation rate

Biochemistry 26(1): 135-146

ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2960

PMID: 3828295

DOI: 10.1021/bi00375a020

Four new bromoacetamido pyrimidine nucleosides have been synthesized and are affinity labels for the active site of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). All bind reversibly to the enzyme and react covalently with it, resulting in inactivation. The binding constants Kb and the first-order decomposition rate constants k3 have been determined for each derivative. They are the following: 3'-(bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxyuridine, Kb = 0.062 M, k3 = 3.3 X 10(-4) s-1; 2'-(bromoacetamido)-2'-deoxyxylofuranosyluracil, Kb = 0.18 M, k3 = 1700 X 10(-4) s-1; 3'-(bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxyarabinofuranosyluracil, Kb = 0.038 M, k3 = 6.6 X 10(-4) s-1; and 3'-(bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxythymidine, Kb = 0.094 M, k3 = 2.7 X 10(-4) s-1. 3'-(Bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxyuridine reacts exclusively with the histidine-119 residue, giving 70% of a monoalkylated product substituted at N-1, 14% of a monoalkylated derivative substituted at N-3, and 16% of a dialkylated species substituted at both N-1 and N-3. Both 2'-(bromoacetamido)-2'-deoxyxylofuranosyluracil and 3'-(bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxyarabinofuranosyluracil react with absolute specificity at N-3 of the histidine-12 residue. 3'-(Bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxythymidine alkylates histidines-12 and -119. The major product formed in 57% yield is substituted at N-3 of histidine-12. A monoalkylated derivative, 8% yield, is substituted at N-1 of histidine-119. A disubstituted species is formed in 14% yield and is alkylated at both N-3 of histidine-12 and N-1 of histidine-119. A specific interaction of the "down" 2'-OH group, unique to 3'-(bromoacetamido)-3'-deoxyuridine, serves to orient the 3'-bromoacetamido residue close to the imidazole ring of histidine-119. The 2'-OH group of 3',5'-dinucleoside phosphate substrates may serve a similar role in the catalytic mechanism, allowing histidine-119 to protonate the leaving group in the transphosphorylation step. (Bromoacetamido)nucleosides are bound in the active site of RNase A in a variety of distinct conformations which are responsible for the different specificities and alkylation rates.

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