+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Advantages and disadvantages of bordeaux mixture and of lime-sulphur used on apples in the growing season
Observations on the Umaria marine bed
10 years of hearing conservation in the Royal Air Force
Chocolate crumb - dairy ingredient for milk chocolate
Effect of daily gelatin ingestion on human scalp hair
Comparison of rice bran and maize bran as feeds for growing and fattening pigs
The composition of pampas-grass (Cortaderia argentea.)
The Accraian Series:
The mechanism of the Liebermann-Burchard reaction of sterols and triterpenes and their esters
Cerebrovascular Doppler ultrasound studies (cv-Doppler)
Toria: PT-303 - first national variety
Hair growth promoting activity of tridax procumbens
Productivity of Pekin x Khaki Campbell ducks
A stable cytosolic expression of VH antibody fragment directed against PVY NIa protein in transgenic potato plant confers partial protection against the virus
Solar treatment of wheat loose smut
Swimmers itch in the Lake of Garda
Bactofugation and the Bactotherm process
The effects of prefrontal lobotomy on aggressive behavior in dogs
Visual rating scales for screening whorl-stage corn for resistance to fall armyworm
Breakdown of seamounts at the trench axis, viewed from gravity anomaly
Kooken; pennsylvania's toughest cave
Recovery of new dinosaur and other fossils from the Early Cretaceous Arundel Clay facies (Potomac Group) of central Maryland, U.S.A
Zubor horny (Bison bonasus) v prirodnych podmienkach Slovensku
The extended Widal test in the diagnosis of fevers due to Salmonella infection
Hair of the american mastodon indicates an adaptation to a semi aquatic habitat

Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures

Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 187: 103-131

ISSN/ISBN: 0179-5953

PMID: 16802580

Given the recent increase in the number of studies describing the ability of chemicals to exert endocrine-disrupting effects, not only in fish but in a variety of other oviparous groups such as amphibians and reptiles, there is an urgent need to harmonize the terminology currently used in describing pathological changes of the gonads. In addition to difficulties in comparing results from different studies, there is also the risk of miscommunication by using terms that imply a certain clinical relevance which may not be true for the species examined. Especially in the case of the recent and controversial issue about potential effects of the triazine herbicide atrazine on amphibians, clinical terminology has been utilized beyond its true meaning by using terms such as "chemical castration" to describe occurrence of TOs or ovarian tissue in the testis of male frogs exposed to environmental chemicals (Hayes 2004). In clinical terminology, castration is defined as the removal of the gonads or their destruction by an external influence, resulting in a nonfertile organism. However, Hayes (2004) did not investigate any possible effects on the fertility of the test animals and thus did not know if these animals were truly castrated. Similarly, terms such as intersex, hermaphrodite, and sex reversal have been used in ways that appear inappropriate with regard to their clinical meaning in a series of different studies with fish or frogs (see previous sections for a detailed discussion). To ensure the appropriate use of certain terminology in a field as controversial and complex as the study of endocrine disruption, we have attempted, in this chapter, to harmonize the terminology used to describe changes in gonadal development of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, especially frogs (see Table 3). Where appropriate, the terminology suggested was adopted directly from the clinical terminology. However, as outlined here there are substantial differences between the developmental biology of oviparous vertebrates and mammals, and especially humans, that necessitate modification of the definitions of some of the clinical terms. Where appropriate, therefore, the terminology proposed in this manuscript was redefined based on the biological meanings of the terms used in clinical diagnosis. Considering the large increase in research in the area of reproductive endocrine disruption over the past decades, the authors see an increasing need for a harmonization of terms to be used to describe effects observed in the investigated species. Agreement on a common terminology will allow scientists to better communicate and compare their work, and will enable risk assessors to conduct large-scale evaluations of environmental endocrine disruption by fitting the information from individual studies into a synthesis of normal and abnormal conditions of gonadal tissues.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 018146808

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Nephrotoxicity resulting from multiple chemical exposures and chemical interactions. Yang, R S H Toxicology of chemical mixtures: Case studies, mechanisms, and novel approaches 335-360, 1994

Predator prey interactions among fish and larval amphibians use of chemical cues to detect predatory fish. Animal Behaviour 35(2): 420-425, 1987

Neurotoxicity resulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bromide, deet, and permethrin: implications of Gulf War chemical exposures. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 48(1): 35-56, 1996

Maternal occupational chemical exposures and biotransformation genotypes as risk factors for selected congenital anomalies. American Journal of Epidemiology 157(6): 475-484, 2003

Gonadal mosaicism 45,X/46,X,psu dic(Y)(q11.2) resulting in a Turner phenotype with mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Singapore Medical Journal 49(4): 349-351, 2008

Chromosomal studies of patients with congenital anomalies simulating those of gonadal aplasia, including a case of true gonadal and sex reversal. New England Journal of Medicine 264: 1009-1016, 1961

Caging techniques for field exposures of fish to chemical contaminants. Aquatic Toxicology 78(4): 370-381, 2006

Possibility of using fish and amphibians for detecting the carcinogenic action of nitrosomorpholine and its chemical precursors. Voprosy Onkologii 25(6): 70-75, 1979

Riding (High) into the danger zone: a review of potential differences in chemical exposures in fighter pilots resulting from high altitude and G-forces. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 13(9): 925-934, 2017

Assessment of health risks resulting from early-life exposures: Are current chemical toxicity testing protocols and risk assessment methods adequate?. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 45(3): 219-244, 2015

Biological Nitric Oxide Signaling Chemistry and Terminology NO Chemical Biology and Terminology. British Journal of Pharmacology, 2013

The elimination of false anomalies resulting from correlating Bouguer anomalies with topography in Qiangtang, Xizang, China. Wutan Yu Huatan = Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration 22(6): 431-435, 439, 1998

Methoxychlor studies with fish: Athabasca River exposures and experimental exposures. Control of black flies in the Athabasca River Technical report An interdisciplinary study for the chemical control of Simulium arcticum Malloch in relation to the bionomics of biting flies in the protection of human, animal, and industrial resources and its impact on the aquatic environment: 183-196, 1980

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Der Internist 61(3): 277-287, 2020

Neoplasia in reptiles and amphibians: terminology and criteria. Herpetopathologia 11: 5-6, 1989