+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Investigations on the organic drift in North Swedish streams
Limitations of Using Microsoft Excel Version 2016 (MS Excel 2016) for Statistical Analysis for Medical Research
Phloem necrosis of coffee in Surinam
Anatomy of Mystus seenghala IV Nervous system
Integrated farming system for gardenland conditions of Coimbatore district - an over view
Tetrapleure (Tetrapleura tetraptera), an unknown African medicinal and spice plant
The origin and phylogenetic significance of the trochophoran larvae 2. evolutionary significance of the larvae of coelomate worms and mollusks
Comparison of rice bran and maize bran as feeds for growing and fattening pigs
Enterobacter amnigenus. An unusual human pathogen
Influence of Seriboost foliar application on leaf yield and leaf protein content in mulberry (Morus spp.), in relation to silkworm cocoon production
The identity of the lipstick mold of cultivated mushrooms agaricus bisporus
Advantages and disadvantages of bordeaux mixture and of lime-sulphur used on apples in the growing season
'Pan-sukh' disease of Rice in the Central Provinces
Geological age of the Ptilophyllum flora; a critical reassessment
Study of vitellogenesis in birds; physiological phases & role of folliculin in vitellogenesis
Evaluation of WCT coconut and Komadan coconut
Therapy for acne with saccharomyces boulardii
Evidence for Late Cretaceous N-S dextral shear in the west-central crystalline core, North Cascades, Washington
'Rajeshwari' - a high-yielding white seeded variety of sesame for Andhra Pradesh
Manufacture of Ricotta cheese from whey fortified with skim milk powder using different acidulants
Occurrence of Eutrichophilus mexicanus (Rudow, 1866) and Eutrichophilus lobatus (Ewing, 1936) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) on Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier, 1825) (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Rio de
Factors affecting fruitfulness in durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.). I. Flowering and pollination
Bronchial cuff pressure change caused by left-sided double-lumen endobronchial tube displacement
Some Biological Applications of Organometallic Compounds
The composition of pampas-grass (Cortaderia argentea.)

Testing time-, ignorance-, and danger-based models of tolerance

Testing time-, ignorance-, and danger-based models of tolerance

Journal of Immunology 166(6): 3663-3671

ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1767

PMID: 11238605

DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.166.6.3663

In this study, we present data showing that tolerance to Ags in the periphery is not determined by the time at which the Ag appears, or by special properties of tissues in newborn mice or newly developing immune systems. We placed male grafts onto immunoincompetent female mice, allowed the grafts to heal for up to 5 mo, and then repopulated the recipients with fetal liver stem cells. We found that the newly arising T cells were neither tolerant nor ignorant of the grafts, but promptly rejected them, though they did not reject female grafts, nor show any signs of autoimmunity. We also found that the H-Y Ag was continuously cross-presented on host APCs, that this presentation was immunogenic, not tolerogenic, and that it depended on the continuous presence of the graft. In searching for the stimulus that might activate the host APCs, we analyzed mRNA expression with a highly sensitive real-time quantitative PCR assay. By using two different "housekeeping" molecules for comparison, we analyzed the message levels for several stress and/or inflammatory molecules in the healed grafts. We found that the long-healed grafts were not equivalent to "normal" skin because the healed grafts expressed lower levels of GAPDH. Altogether, these data suggest that acceptance vs rejection of peripheral tissues is not attributable to ignorance, timing-based tolerance, or special circulation properties of naive T cells in neonatal tissues. It is more likely attributable to an aspect of the context of Ag presentation that remains to be identified.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 018147217

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

An attempt to determine the most suitable time for testing lines based on genetic-mathematical models. Genet Pol 5(2): 137-138, 1964

Testing models from the viewpoint of danger to the water supply in accidents during storage and transport. Schriftenreihe des Vereins für Wasser- Boden- und Lufthygiene 1975(46): 165-174, 1975

An attempt to determine the most suitable time for testing inbred lines based on genetic-mathematical models. Genet. polon 5: 137-38, 1964

Determining torrent danger with the aid of GIS-based models. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 146(9): 727-739, 1995

Constructing and testing logistic regression models for binary data: applications to the National Fire Danger Rating System. General Technical Report Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service ( INT-286): 36 pp., 1992

The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models. Southern Economic Journal 50(2): 521-528, 1983

Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association. Ergonomics 57(4): 503-510, 2014

Ignorance- versus evidence-based decision making: a decision time analysis of the recognition heuristic. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning Memory and Cognition 35(5): 1296-1305, 2009

Real-time EEG-based detection of fatigue driving danger for accident prediction. International Journal of Neural Systems 25(2): 1550002, 2015

Learning tolerance while fighting ignorance. Cell 138(3): 416-420, 2009

The potential danger of a solely interferon-gamma release assay-based approach to testing for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children. Thorax 66(3): 263-4; author reply 265, 2011

Danger- and non-danger-based stressors and their relations to posttraumatic deprecation or growth in Norwegian veterans deployed to Afghanistan. European Journal of Psychotraumatology 10(1): 1601989, 2019

Strategies to overcome immune ignorance and tolerance. Seminars in Cancer Biology 12(1): 63-71, 2002

Transplantation tolerance: a journey from ignorance to memory. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 18(10): 1979-1982, 2003

Regional cerebral glucose metabolism differentiates danger- and non-danger-based traumas in post-traumatic stress disorder. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 11(2): 234-242, 2016