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D13C values of carbonate and associated organic matter from calcareous algae grown under variable atmospheric in the Biosphere 2 ocean



D13C values of carbonate and associated organic matter from calcareous algae grown under variable atmospheric in the Biosphere 2 ocean



Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 29(6): 396



Calcareous algae (Halimeda sp. and Amphiroa sp.) were collected in 10/96 ([CO (sub 2) ] approximately 800 ppm), in 12/96 ( approximately 1000 ppm) and in 6/97 ( approximately 500 ppm) from the Biosphere 2 Ocean to examine the effects of variable atmospheric [CO (sub 2) ] on physiology-related fractionation of carbon isotopes. Halimeda grown in nature generally has a wide range of carbonate delta (super 13) C values (0.8 to 8.0 %) with the younger portion of the plant enriched in (super 13) C due to preferential removal of (super 12) C by photosynthesis. Under low [CO (sub 2) ], the internal DIC pool in Halimeda appears to behave like a closed system, whereby both photosynthesis and calcification use the same fluid. This produces a negative correlation (r2 = 0.99) between delta (super 13) CC (sub org) and delta (super 13) C (sub Carbonate) from different segments in the same plant. Halimeda grown under high [CO (sub 2) ] ( approximately 1000 ppm) has smaller range of d13C values (-9.5 to -6.3 %) which are much lower than the assumed equilibrium value (-1.8 % for Biosphere 2 seawater) and, unlike natural specimens, does not show (super 13) C enrichment in the younger portion of the plant. A specimen grown under near normal [CO (sub 2) ] ( approximately 500 ppm) has a range of carbonate delta (super 13) C values (-8.2 to -1.4 %) that is comparable with that of natural specimens but has little or no photosynthetic enrichment in the younger segments. Overall, with increasing [CO (sub 2) ], carbonate delta (super 13) C values in Halimeda decrease (relative to predicted equilibrium values), are less variable, and are affected less by photosynthesis. As [CO (sub 2) ] increases, delta (super 13) C values of organic matter also decrease from -9 to -13 % ( approximately 350 ppm) to -27 % ( approximately 1000 ppm). However, the systematic relation between the carbonate and organic matter delta (super 13) C values is modified as [CO (sub 2) ] increases. We conclude that a physiological change (produced by increased [CO (sub 2) ]) modifies the processes associated with photosynthesis and/or calcification. For Amphiroa grown under the same conditions, delta (super 13) C values of both carbonate and organic matter decrease by approximately 6% as [CO (sub 2) ] increases from approximately 350 to 1000 ppm. These relations in Amphiroa suggest [CO (sub 2) ] controls the delta (super 13) C value of organic matter, which in turn modifies carbonate delta (super 13) C values via addition of respiratory CO (sub 2) to the internal DIC pool. The correlation of algal delta (super 13) C values with atmospheric [CO (sub 2) ] indicates that the use of calcareous algae as paleo-CO (sub 2) proxies should be examined.

Accession: 018668279

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