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Elemental and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope geochemistry of flows and dikes from the Tapi Rift, Deccan flood basalt province, India

Elemental and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope geochemistry of flows and dikes from the Tapi Rift, Deccan flood basalt province, India

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 93(1-2): 111-123

The Deccan Traps are a large rift-associated continental flood basalt province in India, parts of which have been studied extensively in terms of geochemistry, palaeomagnetism and stratigraphy. However, the basalts of the Tapi rift in the central part of the province have been little-studied thus far. Two ENE-WSW-trending tectonic inliers of the Deccan basalts in this region, forming ridges rising from younger alluvium, are made up of basalt flows profusely intruded by basaltic dikes. Both of these ridges lie along a single lineament, although they are not physically continuous. The flows are aphyric, plagioclase-phyric and giant-plagioclase basalts, and the dikes are aphyric or plagioclase-phyric. We consider the two inliers to have been originally continuous, from the presence of bouldery remnants of a major dioritic gabbro dike along both. Samples of this dike from both ridges have previously yielded typical Deccan ages of 65.6+ or -0.5 Ma and 65.6+ or -0.6 Ma by the (super 40) Ar- (super 39) Ar incremental heating technique. Initial (super 87) Sr/ (super 86) Sr ratios and epsilon (sub Nd) (t) values, and present-day Pb isotopic ratios of most dikes indicate that they are isotopically similar to lavas of the Mahabaleshwar and Panhala Formations of the Western Ghats, about 450 km to the south. Their mantle-normalized trace element patterns have small Pb and Ba peaks. One dike has a strong Bushe Formation affinity and a Nd-Sr isotopic composition more extreme than that of any other Deccan rock yet sampled, with epsilon (sub Nd) (t) = -20.2 and ( (super 87) Sr/ (super 86) Sr) (sub t) = 0.72315. Its mantle-normalized element pattern shows large Pb, Th and U peaks and large Nb-Ta troughs. Its elemental and isotopic chemistry reflects substantial continental contamination. The flows cut by the Mahabaleshwar-type dikes are isotopically similar to the Poladpur Formation lavas of the Western Ghats. Their mantle-normalized element patterns show modest peaks at Rb, Ba and Pb and rather low Nb and Ta relative to La, indicating that they have been contaminated to intermediate degrees. The mantle-normalized element patterns of all the flows and dikes show enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, with small or no Eu anomalies. The entire flow-dike sequence is similar to the Wai Subgroup of the Western Ghats, in terms of its elemental and isotopic chemistry and stratigraphic relationships. Wai Subgroup-like lavas (i.e., some of the younger magma types originally identified from the southern part of the Western Ghats) are previously known from the central, northern and northeastern Deccan, and many have been thought to be far-travelled flows erupted in the southwestern Deccan. Although at least the dikes, and probably the giant plagioclase basalt flows of our study area, are locally generated and emplaced, our new data extend the known outcrop area of these widespread magma types substantially, and these magma types indeed appear to have a nearly province-wide distribution.

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Accession: 018826940

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DOI: 10.1016/s0377-0273(99)00081-5

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