+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Estimating surface rupture length and magnitude of paleoearthquakes from point measurements of rupture displacement



Estimating surface rupture length and magnitude of paleoearthquakes from point measurements of rupture displacement



Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 96(5): 1612-1623



We present a method to estimate paleomagnitude and rupture extent from measurements of displacement at a single point on a fault. The variability of historic ruptures is summarized in a histogram of normalized slip, then scaled to give the probability of finding a given displacement within a rupture for any magnitude considered. The histogram can be inverted assuming any magnitude earthquake is as likely as another, yielding probability density functions of magnitude and rupture length for any given displacement measurement. To improve these distributions we include a term to account for the probability that the earthquake would cause ground rupture and two alternative distributions of earthquake magnitude. The Gutenberg- Richter magnitude distribution predicts shorter rupture lengths and smaller magnitudes than does a uniform distribution where any magnitude earthquake is considered equally likely. Longer ruptures and larger magnitudes than the uniform model are predicted by an alternative magnitude distribution designed to return site average displacement. This model is a generalization of the characteristic earthquake model, and reasonably describes paleoseismic findings on the southern San Andreas fault, where slip is accommodated by average displacements of a few meters and earthquake recurrence times of 100-250 years. Our results should increase the value of paleoseismic displacement measurements for hazard assessment. In particular, they quantify probability estimates of earthquake magnitude and rupture length where point observations of rupture displacement are available, and so can contribute to probabilistic seismic-hazard analyses. Online material: Rupture profiles used to sample rupture variability.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 018854154

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

DOI: 10.1785/0120040172


Related references

New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 84(4): 974-1002, 1994

Rupture length and earthquake magnitude estimates from paleoseismic measurements of displacement at a point. Congress of the International Union for Quaternary Research 16(Pages 102, 2003

Analysis of empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture area, and surface displacement. Seismological Research Letters: , Pages 73. 1992., 1992

Estimating prehistoric earthquake magnitude from point displacements instead of surface rupture length. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 77(46, Suppl, 1996

Estimating prehistoric earthquake magnitude from point measurements of surface rupture. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 89(5): 1264-1279, 1999

Statistical relations among earthquake magnitude, surface rupture length, and surface fault displacement. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 74(6): 2379-2411, 1984

Rupture length and paleomagnitude estimates from point measurements of displacement; a model-based approach. Geological Society of America 479, 2011

Rupture length magnitude relationship and fault-rupture model. Diqiu Wulixue Bao = Acta Geophysica Sinica 33(2): 242-248, 1990

Estimating the hazard of rupture using uncertain occurrence times of paleoearthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 104(B8): 17995-18014, 1999

New earthquake magnitude and fault rupture parameters; Part I, Surface rupture area relationships. Seismological Research Letters 60(1): 27, 1989

Using point displacement measurements to constrain the rupture history of the southern San Andreas Fault. Seismological Research Letters 75(2): 254-255, 2004

Relationship between earthquake magnitude and length of rupture surface based on aftershock zones. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 7(3): 419-420, 1975

Incomplete formulations of the regression of earthquake magnitude with surface fault rupture length. Geology 6(4): 233-235, 1978

Incomplete formulations of the regression of earthquake magnitude with surface fault rupture length; discussion. Geology 7(1): 6, 1979

Characteristics of surface rupture of El Asnam (Algeria) earthquake and the study of paleoearthquakes. Acta Seismologica Sinica 4(4): 547-558, 1991