Formation of diamond with mineral inclusions of mixed eclogite and peridotite paragenesis
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160(3-4): 831-843
ISSN/ISBN: 0012-821X DOI: 10.1016/s0012-821x(98)00131-9
Two unusual diamonds were studied from kimberlites from China, which contain both ultramafic and eclogitic mineral inclusions in the same diamond hosts. Diamond L32 contains seven Fe-rich garnets, four omphacites and one olivine inclusion. Four olivine, one sanidine and one coesite were recovered from diamond S32. Both garnet and omphacite inclusions have similar compositions as those from other localities of the world, and show basaltic bulk composition. All the garnet and omphacite inclusions in diamond L32 have positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu (super *) 1.64 approximately 1.79). These observations support the proposal that mantle eclogite is the metamorphic product of subducted ancient oceanic crust. The Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of the olivine inclusions from the two diamonds (91-92) are evidently lower than the normal olivine inclusions in diamonds from the same kimberlite pipe (92-95). The following model is proposed for the formation of diamonds with "mixed" mineral inclusions. Ascending diamond-bearing eclogite (recycled oceanic crust) entrained in mantle plumes may experience extensive partial melting, whereas the ambient peridotite matrix remains subsolidus in the diamond stable field. This provides a mechanism for the transport of diamond from its original eclogitic host to an ultramafic one. Subsequent re-growth of diamond in the new environment makes it possible to capture mineral inclusions of different lithological suites. Partial melts of basaltic sources may interact with the surrounding peridotite, resulting in the relatively lower Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of the coexisting olivine inclusions from the studied diamonds. Diamonds with "mixed" mineral inclusions demonstrate that plume activity also occurred in the Archean cratons.