Geochemistry of Archaean bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sandur supracrustal belt, Dharwar Craton, southern India
Hanuma Prasad, M.; Krishna Rao, B.; Vasudev, V.N.; Srinivasan, R.; Balaram, V.
Journal of the Geological Society of India 49(3): 307-322
In the late Archaean Sandur supracrustal belt of the Dharwar craton, Southern India, bimodal (mafic-felsic) volcanic rocks are encountered in its eastern region (Copper Mountain region). The mafic volcanic rocks are represented by Al-depleted picritic basalt and tholeiitic basalt. Picritic basalt has a HREE-depleted pattern. Tholeiitic basalt exhibits two types of REE patterns; (a) slightly depleted--to flat--LREE and unfractionated HREE patterns, and (b) LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns. The felsic volcanic rocks are Na-Rhyolites, which show calc-alkaline affinity and LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted chondrite-normalised patterns. Geochemical signatures show that the picritic basalt owes its origin to melting of a mantle diapir at depths around 100 km. The LREE-depleted tholeiites are not genetically related to the picritic basalt. They were derived through high degree partial melting of a depleted shallow mantle source. The internal variations observed in the LREE-depleted tholeiitic suite are due to derivation of magma through different degrees of melting of the same mantle source. REE-based petrogenetic modelling shows that the LREE-depleted and LREE-enriched tholeiites are not related to a common parent magma. The LREE-enriched tholeiites were generated from a mantle source, which has been metasomatized by subduction related melt/fluid phase. REE chemistry shows that the mafic and felsic volcanic rocks, though spatially and temporally associated, are not genetically related. The HREE depleted rhyolites were derived by partial melting of a garnet - amphibole bearing source, possibly a subducting oceanic crust. Field, geochemical and petrogenetic aspects suggest that the magmatic rocks of the study area evolved in an active plate margin environment.