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Geoenvironmental appraisal; a case study in Rapti Basin covering parts of Bahraich, Gonda, Basti and Siddharthnagar districts of Uttar Pradesh


Geoenvironmental appraisal; a case study in Rapti Basin covering parts of Bahraich, Gonda, Basti and Siddharthnagar districts of Uttar Pradesh



Special Publication Series - Geological Survey of India 48(1): 85-89



Regional environmental problems of the area and their linkage with geology and geomorphology were studied. Geologically, Siwalik is the oldest lithounit exposed in the northernmost part of the area. Unconformably overlying the Siwalik are the Quarternary sediments which are broadly divided into Older Alluvium and Newer Alluvium. The Older Alluvium, designated as Bahraich Alluvium ( identical with Varanasi Alluvium) can be further divided into two facies, viz. rudaceous and silt-clay. The Newer Alluvium has been classified into Ghaghra/Rapti/Burhi Rapti/Banganga Terrace Alluvium and their Active Channel Alluvium. Geomorphologically, the area is broadly classified into two morphounits, viz. an upland represented by Bahraich Alluvial Plain ( identical with Varanasi Alluvial Plain) and a low land defined by floodplains of the rivers. Bahraich Alluvial Plain is further divisible into piedmont zone close to Siwalik hills and alluvial plain occupying the southern part of the area. The floodplains have been subdivided into older flood plains (T (sub 1) ) and an active flood plain (T (sub 0) ). In Rapti and Burhi Rapti rivers an erosional terrace (T (sub e) ) has been developed near Bansi. The prime environmental problems in the particular stretch of Rapti basin have direct linkage with different geomorphic expressions. Annual/seasonal flooding, bank erosion, seasonal waterlogging along canals, soil alkalinisation (reh-infestation), badland formation, goitre endemicity and hazards due to human activity are the prime geoenvironmental problem recorded in the area (Nag and Rawat, 1986; Nag and Nigam, 1987 and 1988).

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