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Isotope geochemistry and origin of calc-alkaline lavas from a Caledonian continental margin volcanic arc



Isotope geochemistry and origin of calc-alkaline lavas from a Caledonian continental margin volcanic arc



Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 18(1-4): 589-631



Analyses for major and trace elements, including REE, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes are reported from a suite of Siluro-Devonian lavas from Fife, Scotland. The rocks form part of a major calc-alkaline igneous province developed on the Scottish continental margin above a WNW-dipping subduction zone. Within the small area (ca. 15 km2) considered, rock types range from primitive basalts and andesites (high Mg, Ni and Cr) to lavas more typical of modern calc-alkaline suites with less than 30 ppm Ni and Cr. There is a marked silica gap between these rocks (< 62%) and the rare rhyolites (> 74%), yet the latter can be generated by fractional crystallization from the more mafic lavas. In contrast, variation in incompatible element concentrations and ratios in the mafic lavas can not be generated by fractional crystallization processes. Increasing SiO2 is accompanied by increasing Rb, K, Pb, U and Ba relative to Sr and high field strength elements, increasing LREE enrichment and increasing Sr calculated at 410 Ma, and by decreasing HREE, Eu/Eu, Sm/Nd and Nd (410). Nd and Sr are roughly anticorrelated and have more radiogenic compositions than the mantle array, in common with data reported elsewhere from this part of the arc. The correlation extrapolates up to cross the mantle array within the composition field of the contemporary MORB source, and extrapolates down towards the probable compositional range of Lower Palaeozoic greywackes, which may form the uppermost 8 km of the crust, or may be supplied to the source by subduction. One sample, however, lies within the mantle array, and closely resembles lavas from northwestern parts of the arc, where a mantle source with mild time-integrated Rb/Sr and LREE enrichment has been inferred. The lavas have relatively high initial 207Pb/204Pb for their 206Pb/204Pb, a feature which has been interpreted elsewhere as the result of incorporation of a sediment component into arc magmas. The systematic changes with increasing SiO2 in isotopic and chemical parameters can be explained by mixing of a greywacke-derived component with depleted mantle. The various possible mixing mechanisms are discussed, and it is considered most likely that mixing occurred in the mantle source through greywacke subduction. The bulk of the Rb, K, Ba and Pb in the lavas is probably recycled from the crust, whereas less than some 40% of the Sr and Nd is recycled. The calc-alkaline chemical trends are solely a function of mixing with the sediment component.

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Accession: 019248060

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DOI: 10.1016/0377-0273(83)90027-6


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