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Main characteristics of Caledonian gold deposits in south China



Main characteristics of Caledonian gold deposits in south China



Mineral Deposits = Kuangchuang Dizhi 19(1): 1-8



Gold deposits formed in the Caledonian period, the second most important gold mineralization period in south China, and are widely distributed in the South China Caledonian fold belt and adjacent Jiangnan rise. The common characteristics of gold deposits in two tectonic units lie in he development of these deposits in Caledonian technically deformed zones or Caledonian metamorphic belts, the control of these deposits by faults in deep fracture zones and their subsidiary fractures, and the derivation of ore-forming materials from adjacent wall rocks. Gold deposits in the Jiangnan rise are characterized by the existence of these deposits in Proterozoic metamporphosed microclastic rocks and their relatively simple mineral and element associations. Nevertheless, gold deposits in the fold belt occur in Proterozoic-Silurian volcanic, intrusive and sedimentary rocks as well as Proterozoic-Cambrian metamorphosed microclastic rocks and consist of rather complex mineral and element associations. Gold deposits in the Jiangnan rise were formed by Caledonian reformation processes and those in the fold belt are products of reformation and porphyry mineralization of Caledonian and, partly, Yanshanian and Sinian periods. Wide distribution of Caledonian gold deposits is closely related to Caledonian tectonic development in that area. Differences between gold deposits in the Jiangnan rise and those in the fold belt are attributed to the diversity of ore-forming materials and the superimposed mineralization.

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