Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and -furans (PCDFs) in pine needles of Poland
Bochentin, I.; Hanari, N.; Orlikowska, A.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Horii, Y.; Yamashita, N.; Falandysz, J.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 42(13): 1969-1978
There is scarcity of data on sources, environmental diffusion and concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like compounds in the Eastern and Central Europe. A study has been conducted using pine needles as passive matrix on diffusion of airborne 17 highly toxic PCDD/Fs in Poland. The target compounds were quantified using isotope dilution and HRGC/HRMS. One-year-old pine needles collected from 25 spatially distant sites in October 2002 revealed a relatively very low aerial emission and degree of pollution with PCDD/Fs. The most toxic 2,3,7,8-TCDD was absent (< 0.44 pg/g) in fresh pine needles sampled and absent at all sites were also 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF (< 0.27 pg/g). OCDD at concentration range from 1.4 to 34 pg/g and OCDF at range from 1.5 to 41 pg/g were the only among 17 compounds found at each site, and next in prevalence was 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF (total range from < 0.41 to 8.1 pg/g), which was found at 24 off 25 sites. The I-TEQ transformed concentrations of PCDD/Fs of pine needles of Poland ranged from < 0.01 to 1.28 pg/g ww or from 0.01 to 3.18 pg/g dw. The CDD/F homologue groups and congeners profiles of pine needles with highly dominant HpCDD/F and OCDD/F found in this survey suggest on lack of significant other than coal/lignite/wood combustiont sources of PCDD/Fs diffusion to ambient air in Poland.