Spray drying of an attenuated live Newcastle disease vaccine virus intended for respiratory mass vaccination of poultry

Corbanie, E.A.; Remon, J.P.; Van Reeth, K.; Landman, W.J.M.; van Eck, J.H.H.; Vervaet, C.

Vaccine 25(49): 8306-8317


ISSN/ISBN: 0264-410X
PMID: 17977632
DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.09.049
Accession: 020080925

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A powder vaccine intended for aerosol vaccination of poultry was formulated by spray drying a live attenuated Newcastle disease virus with potential stabilizers (mannitol, trehalose, polyvinylpyrrollidone (PVP), bovine serum albumin (BSA)). Thermodynamic properties, water sorption, particle size distribution, nebulization properties, density and morphology of the powders were evaluated and the virus survival during spray drying and storage was determined by incubation in embryonated eggs and subsequent haemagglutination assay. All powders had a narrow size distribution with a median volume diameter of +/-30 microm (suitable for primary respiratory vaccination of chickens) and good aerosolization characteristics. Four amorphous, hygroscopic formulations were produced (trehalose, trehalose-PVP, trehalose-BSA, trehalose-PVP-BSA), where addition of BSA was beneficial for virus survival during production and storage at 6 and 25 degrees C. A crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder (mannitol) had a lower stabilizing capacity during production but maintained the remaining virus titre during storage. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that it is possible to produce a dry powder formulation of an attenuated live vaccine for mass vaccination of poultry in a one-step spray drying process.