+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, g-linolenic acid and dihomo-g-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations



Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, g-linolenic acid and dihomo-g-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations



The British Journal of Nutrition 99(2): 360-9



Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy not only improves maternal and neonatal DHA status, but often reduces g-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels also, which may compromise foetal and infant development. The present study investigated the effects of a fish oil/evening primrose oil (FSO/EPO) blend (456 mg DHA/d and 353 mg GLA/d) compared to a placebo (mixture of habitual dietary fatty acids) on the plasma fatty acid (FA) composition in two groups of twenty non-pregnant women using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. FA were quantified in plasma total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and TAG at weeks 0, 4, 6 and 8. After 8 weeks of intervention, percentage changes from baseline values of plasma total lipid FA were significantly different between FSO/EPO and placebo for GLA (+49.9[percent] v. +2.1[percent], means), DGLA (+ 13.8[percent] v. +0.7[percent]) and DHA (+59.6[percent] v. +5.5[percent]), while there was no significant difference for ARA (-2.2[percent] v. -5.9[percent]). FA changes were largely comparable between plasma lipid fractions. In both groups three subjects reported mild adverse effects. As compared with placebo, FSO/EPO supplementation did not result in any physiologically relevant changes of safety parameters (blood cell count, liver enzymes). In women of childbearing age the tested FSO/EPO blend was well tolerated and appears safe. It increases plasma GLA, DGLA, and DHA levels without impairing ARA status. These data provide a basis for testing this FSO/EPO blend in pregnant women for its effects on maternal and neonatal FA status and infant development. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 020735261

Download citation: RISBibTeXText


Related references

Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose oil increases plasma docosahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations. British Journal of Nutrition 99(2): 360-369, 2007

Co-supplementation of healthy women with fish oil and evening primrose dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels without reducing arachidonic acid concentrations. 2008

Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo--linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA) 80(4): 0-206, 2009

Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 80(4): 201-206, 2009

Low Docosahexaenoic Acid, Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid, and Arachidonic Acid Levels Associated with Long-Term Mortality in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Different Nutritional Statuses. Nutrients 9(9), 2018

Some effects of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid and of their metabolites gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and of prostaglandins A1 and E1 on the proliferation of human osteogenic sarcoma cells in culture. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Medicine 15(1): 15-33, 1984

Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation and prematurity on conversion efficiency of linolenic acid to DHA and linoleic acid to AA baboon brain and associated tissues. FASEB Journal 16(4): A634, March 20, 2002

Effects of supplementation of formula with docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and gamma -linolenic acid on brain fatty acid composition in artificially reared rat pups. gamma Linolenic acid: recent advances in biotechnology and clinical applications Second International Symposium on gamma Linolenic Acid, 91st AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo, San Diego, California, USA, April 2000: 180-189, 2001

Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens. Lipids 24(1): 70-75, 1989

Effect of streptozotocin diabetes upon the in vivo conversion of carbon 14 gamma linolenic acid and dihomo gamma linolenic acid into arachidonic acid in kidneys and whole rats. Diabete & Metabolisme 11(5): 289-294, 1985

Familial adenomatous polyposis patients have high levels of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and low levels of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in serum phospholipids. International Journal of Cancer 120(3): 632-637, 2006

Comparison of arachidonic acid eicosapentaenoic acid and dihomo delta linolenic acid acid as substrates for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase in rat mesangial cells. Clinical Research 33(2 PART 1): 588A, 1985

Substitution of dietary oleic acid for myristic acid increases the tissue storage of α-linolenic acid and the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain, red blood cells and plasma in the rat. Animal 2(4): 636-644, 2008

Alpha-Linolenic acid combined with lovastatin enhances cellular docosahexaenoic acid levels and prevents the rise in arachidonic acid in Hep G2 cells. European Heart Journal 15(ABSTR SUPPL ): 585, 1994

Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in lactating women increases breast milk and plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentrations and alters infant omega 6:3 fatty acid ratio. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 95: 63-69, 2015