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Expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response marker, BiP, in the central nervous system of HIV-positive individuals



Expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response marker, BiP, in the central nervous system of HIV-positive individuals



Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 33(6): 658-669



The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI), which includes HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and minor cognitive and motor disorder (MCMD), has been increasing. HIV-infected and/or activated macrophages/microglia in the brain initiate the neurodegeneration seen in HIV-associated NCI via soluble neurotoxic mediators, including reactive oxygen species, viral proteins and excitotoxins. Neurotoxic factors released by macrophages/microglia injure neurones directly and alter astrocytic homeostatic functions, which can lead to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated neuronal injury. Often, cells respond to oxidative stress by initiating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Thus, we hypothesize that ER stress response is activated in HIV-infected cortex. We used immunofluorescence and immunoblotting to assess expression patterns of the ER stress proteins, BiP and ATF6, in HIV-positive cortical autopsy tissue. Additionally, we performed immunofluorescence using cell type-specific markers to examine BiP staining in different cell types, including neurones, astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. We observed a significant increase in BiP expression by both immunoblotting and immunofluorescence in HIV-positive cortex compared with control tissue. Additionally, phenotypic analysis of immunofluorescence showed cell type-specific increases in BiP levels in neurones and astrocytes. Further, ATF-6beta, an ER stress response initiator, is up-regulated in the same patient group, as assessed by immunoblotting. These results suggest that ER stress response is activated in HIV-infected cortex. Moreover, data presented here indicate for the first time that numbers of macrophages/microglia increase in brains of MCMD patients, as has been observed in HAD.

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Accession: 021014755

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 17931354

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2007.00866.x


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