Extended three-dimensional impedance map methods for identifying ultrasonic scattering sites
Mamou, J.; Oelze, M.L.; O'Brien, W.D.; Zachary, J.F.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123(2): 1195-1208
The frequency-dependent ultrasound backscatter from tissues contains information about the microstructure that can be quantified. In many cases, the anatomic microstructure details responsible for ultrasonic scattering remain unidentified. However, their identification would lead to potentially improved methodologies for characterizing tissue and diagnosing disease from ultrasonic backscatter measurements. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) acoustic models of tissue microstructure, termed 3D impedance maps (3DZMs), were introduced to help to identify scattering sources [J. Mamou, M. L. Oelze, W. D. O'Brien, Jr., and J. F. Zachary, "Identifying ultrasonic scattering sites from 3D impedance maps," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 413-423 (2005)]. In the current study, new 3DZM methodologies are used to model and identify scattering structures. New processing procedures (e.g., registration, interpolations) are presented that allow more accurate 3DZMs to be constructed from histology. New strategies are proposed to construct scattering models [i.e., form factor (FF)] from 3DZMs. These new methods are tested on simulated 3DZMs, and then used to evaluate 3DZMs from three different rodent tumor models. Simulation results demonstrate the ability of the extended strategies to accurately predict FFs and estimate scatterer properties. Using the 3DZM methods, distinct FFs and scatterer properties were obtained for each tumor examined.