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Green rust formation from the bioreduction of gamma-FeOOH (lepidocrocite): Comparison of several Shewanella species

Green rust formation from the bioreduction of gamma-FeOOH (lepidocrocite): Comparison of several Shewanella species

Geomicrobiology Journal 24(3-4): 211-230

Green rusts are mixed ferrous/ferric hydroxides that typically form under weakly acidic to alkaline conditions in suboxic environments. The recent identification of green rusts as products of the reduction of Fe(III) oxides and oxyhydroxides by Shewanella putrefaciens, a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium (DIRB), suggests that green rusts may play a role in the redox cycling of Fe in many aquatic and terrestrial environments. We examined the potential for green rust formation resulting from the bioreduction of lepidocrocite(gamma-FeOOH) by a series of Shewanella species (S. alga BrY, S. amazonensis SB2B, S. baltica OS155, S. denitrificans OS217T, S. loihica PV-4, S. oneidensis MR-1, S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071, S. putrefaciens CN32, S. saccharophilia, and Shewanella sp. ANA-3). All Shewanella species, with the exception of S. denitrificans OS217T, were able to couple the oxidation of formate to the reduction of Fe( III) in lepidocrocite; however there were significant differences among species with respect to the rate and extent of Fe(II) production. Despite these differences, green rust was the only Fe(II)-bearing solid phase formed under our experimental conditions, as indicated by X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of green rust by Shewanella species isolated from a wide range of habitats and possessing varied metabolic capabilities suggests that under favorable conditions biogenic green rusts may be formed by a diverse array of DIRB.

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