Neue oberliassische Apocrita und die Phylogenie der Hymenoptera (Insecta, Hymenoptera)
Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 32(1-3): 129-142
The origin of the order Hymenoptera, as one of the monophyletic parts of holometabolic insects, date back at least to the Permian, because of the other three suitable sistergroups, which are always presented from that time. The first specimen related to the Hymenoptera have been recordet from the Lower Triassic. The oldest species which are placed into the suborder Apocrita are Liadobracona raduhna Z., 1981 and Sippelipterus liasinus n. gen. et sp. from the Upper Liassic of Europe. A new generic and specific diagnosis of Liadobracona raduhna and the description and illustration of Sippelipterus liasinus is presented. By the methods of phylogenetic systematics the liassic genera, the Karatavitidae, Ephialtitidae and other families are critically examined. This study shows, that Sippelipterus must be assigned to the steamgroup of +Apocrita, while Liadobracona probably was a member of +Apocrita. The family Ephialtitidae is probably not a monophyletic group. A dendrogram of the order Hymenoptera is proposed. In order to illustrate different evolutionary stages of living Apocrita, parts of the venation of fore wings of mesozoic Hymenoptera are figured.