Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Choi, J.Woong.J.; Ford, E.S.; Gao, X.; Choi, H.K.
Arthritis and Rheumatism 59(1): 109-116
ISSN/ISBN: 2326-5191 PMID: 18163396 DOI: 10.1002/art.23245
Sugar-sweetened soft drinks contain large amounts of fructose, which may significantly increase serum uric acid levels and the risk of gout. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake, diet soft drink intake, and serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Using data from 14,761 participants age>or=20 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), we examined the relationship between soft drink consumption and serum uric acid levels using linear regression. Additionally, we examined the relationship between soft drink consumption and hyperuricemia (serum uric acid level>7.0 mg/dl for men and >5.7 mg/dl for women) using logistic regression. Intake was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Serum uric acid levels increased with increasing sugar-sweetened soft drink intake. After adjusting for covariates, serum uric acid levels associated with sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption categories (<0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1-3.9, and >or=4 servings/day) were greater than those associated with no intake by 0.08, 0.15, 0.33, and 0.42 mg/dl, respectively (95% confidence interval 0.11, 0.73; P<0.001 for trend). The multivariate odds ratios for hyperuricemia according to the corresponding sweetened soft drink consumption levels were 1.01, 1.34, 1.51, and 1.82, respectively (P=0.003 for trend). Diet soft drink consumption was not associated with serum uric acid levels or hyperuricemia (multivariate P>0.13 for trend). These findings from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is associated with serum uric acid levels and frequency of hyperuricemia, but diet soft drink consumption is not.