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Comparison of molecular phylogeny and morphological systematics in fish parasite genus Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae)



Comparison of molecular phylogeny and morphological systematics in fish parasite genus Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae)



Zoologica Poloniae 49(1-4): 5-28



Phylogenetic hypothesis comprising sixty-eight Gyrodactylus species representing six morphologically established subgenera of MALMBERG (1970) was constructed gradually on the basis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal cassette (rDNA). The conservative 157 bp long 5.8S rRNA gene was proven to carry systematically useful phylogenetic information, consistent with the deep division of Gyrodactylus into two morphologically unpredicted lineages with "short" and "long" ITS. Analysis of ITS2 sequences alone enabled establishing four main clades in Gyrodactylus phylogeny. More complete relationship within each clade was revealed by analysis of combined ITS1+ITS2 sequences. Two European freshwater subgenera, Gyrodactylus (Limnonephrotus) and G. (Gyrodactylus) were confirmed as monophyletic taxa. Three South American species clustered together and obtained a basal position in the tree, while they have proven difficult to classify with morphology alone. Marine rugiensis group classified earlier as G. (Paranephrotus) was a sister group of freshwater G. (Limnonephrotus) and included the only species of G. (Neonephrotus). Freshwater lotae group classified as G. (Paranephrotus) clustered into phylogenetically interesting and well-supported monophyletic clade formed from species of marine G. (Metanephrotus) and G. (Mesonephrotus), and three unclassified North American freshwater species. The host diversity within the parasite clades varied widely. In subgenus G. (Limnonephrotus), 22 closely related species of wageneri group were hosted by six distant fish families, while out of the 15 other members of this subgenus all but one parasitized cyprinids. Out of ten species of G. (Gyrodactylus), nine were hosted by cyprinids. Less closely related species of the "synthetic" group were found among seven host fish families. Evidence for speciation by host switching crossing the host family borders was only found in wageneri group. In other clades, co-speciation with host remains as a possibility, but proving it needs more comprehensive and global sampling scheme.

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