Comparison of sources affecting chemical compositions of aerosol and rainwater at different locations in Turkey
Ahmet Türküm; Beyhan Pekey; Hakan Pekey; Gürdal Tuncel
Atmospheric Research 89(4): 0-314
In this study, concentrations of elements and ions were measured in atmospheric aerosol and rainwater samples collected at two rural stations on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts of Turkey. The relationship between chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosol and rainwater was investigated using receptor-oriented methods utilizing long-term data collected at the Antalya and Amasra stations in Turkey. Factor analysis performed on aerosol and rainwater data sets yielded that source types affecting chemical composition of rain and atmospheric particles were generally the same, but the contribution of each source type to rain and aerosol compositions showed differences. Potential source contribution function calculations were performed to determine if source regions affecting the chemical composition of rain and atmospheric particles were identical. The general pattern observed in distribution of source regions in rainwater and aerosol data sets showed some similarities at both stations, but there were substantial differences in detail.Source regions at the Antalya Station affecting the chemical composition of rainwater were local as compared to source regions affecting the composition of aerosol. The same difference was not observed in the Amasra Station. The source regions for crustal components of rainwater at the Antalya Station included western parts of Turkey, while European countries and North Africa were found to be the source regions affecting crustal components of aerosol at the Antalya Station. Potential source contribution function calculations indicated that major contributions to the anthropogenic components of aerosol at Antalya came mostly from the western parts of Turkey and European countries, while central Anatolia was the major source region contributing to anthropogenic components of rainwater at the Antalya Station. At the Amasra Station, the area north of the Black Sea and western parts of Turkey were the most important source regions affecting crustal and anthropogenic components for both aerosol and rainwater. It was observed that northern Europe, parts of Turkey, Ukraine, Russia, and some Balkan regions were the main source regions contributing to SO42− concentrations both in rainwater and aerosol samples collected at both sampling sites.