+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Motor function and the corticospinal tracts in the dog and raccoon

Motor function and the corticospinal tracts in the dog and raccoon

Journal of Comparative Neurology 129(4): 341-360

Following unilateral somatomotor cerebral cortex ablation in 3 raccoons and 10 Beagle dogs with similar functional deficits of hypotonia, hypokinesia and dysmetria limited to the side opposite the lesion were observed in both species. Only in the raccoon was a loss of digital manipulative ability of the contralateral forepaw observed. The Nauta-Gygax method was used to trace corticospinal projections into the grey matter of the spinal cord. In both species preterminal degeneration was found ipsilaterally and contra-laterally in Rexed's laminae V, VI, VII and VIE. Furthermore, in the raccoon preterminal corticospinal degeneration was followed into the dorsal portion of contralateral lamina DC at the level C7-8. Although direct corticospinal projections to motoneurones of lamina DC occur in greater quantity and in increasing quantity with increasing complexity of digital abilities among the primate species, it appears that such connections are not limited phylogenetically to primates and probably are correlated with the ability of a species to manipulate the digits. Comparison of these anatomical findings with those reported for the cat revealed a progressive ventral shift of corticospinal terminations in ventral horn neuronal groups from cat to dog to raccoon, specifically into lamina DC in the raccoon. No single pattern of corticospinal terminations appears typical for the Order Carnivora. Data on dogs varying in age from one month to adult support the suggestion that there is a direct correlation between some motor cortex functions and postnatal maturation of corticospinal connections.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 023073772

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 6068032

DOI: 10.1002/cne.901290405

Related references

Function and anatomy of the corticospinal tracts in the dog and raccoon. Dissertation Abstracts, 27B 4215-4216, 1967

Motor neuron organization and corticospinal fibers in the cervical intumescence of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) spinal cord. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 17(1): 27-40, 1988

Maturation of corticospinal tracts assessed by electromagnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Archives of Disease in Childhood 63(11): 1347-1352, 1988

Distinct hyperintense MRI signal changes in the corticospinal tracts of a patient with motor neuron disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders 1(1): 41-44, 2002

Selective and asymmetric vulnerability of corticospinal and spinocerebellar tracts in motor neuron disease. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 51(6): 785-789, 1988

Distinct hyperintense MRI signal changes in the corticospinal tracts of a patient with motor neuron disease. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1(1): 41-44, 1999

Activation of microglial neuregulin1 signaling in the corticospinal tracts of ALS patients with upper motor neuron signs. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 15(1-2): 77-83, 2014

Influence of Corticospinal Tracts from Higher Order Motor Cortices on Recruitment Curve Properties in Stroke. Frontiers in Neuroscience 10: 79, 2016

Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development. Neuroradiology 54(5): 507-516, 2012

Integration of BOLD-fMRI and DTI into radiation treatment planning for high-grade gliomas located near the primary motor cortexes and corticospinal tracts. Radiation Oncology 10: 64, 2016

Thermal injury to corticospinal tracts and postoperative motor deficits after laser interstitial thermal therapy. Neurosurgical Focus 41(4): E6, 2017

Intraoperative corticomuscular motor evoked potentials for evaluation of motor function: a comparison with corticospinal D and I waves. Journal of Neurosurgery 104(1): 85-92, 2006

Probing the corticospinal link between the motor cortex and motoneurones: some neglected aspects of human motor cortical function. Acta Physiologica 198(4): 403-416, 2010

Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 8: 51, 2014

Development of the corticospinal system and hand motor function: Central conduction times and motor performance tests. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 42(4): 220-227, 2000