Phylogenetic Position and Morphology of Thecae and Cysts of Scrippsiella (Dinophyceae) Species in the East China Sea (1)
Gu, H.; Sun, J.; Kooistra, W.H.C.F.; Zeng, R.
Journal of Phycology 44(2): 478-494
ISSN/ISBN: 0022-3646 PMID: 27041202 DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00478.x
Resting cysts of the marine phytoplanktonic dinoflagellate Scrippsiella spp. are encountered in coastal habitats and shallow seas all over the world. Identification of Scrippsiella species requires information on cyst morphology because the plate pattern of the flagellated cell is conserved. Cysts from sediments of the East China Sea were identified based on traits from both the cysts and the thecal patterns of germinated cells. Calcareous cysts belonged predominantly to S. trochoidea (F. Stein) A. R. Loebl., S. rotunda J. Lewis, and S. precaria Montresor et Zingone. The former two species also produced smooth and noncalcified cysts in the field. A new species, S. donghaienis H. Gu sp. nov, was obtained from six noncalcified cysts with organic spines. These cysts are spherical, full of pale white and greenish granules with a mesoepicystal archeopyle. The vegetative cells consist of a conical epitheca and a round hypotheca with a plate formula of po, x, 4', 3a, 7 '', 6c (5c + t), 6 s, 5''', 2'''' and are morphologically indistinguishable from S. trochoidea. Results of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence comparisons revealed that S. donghaienis was distinct from the S. trochoidea complex and appeared nested within the Calciodinellum/Calcigonellum clade. Culture experiments showed that the presence of a red body in the cyst and the shape of the archeopyle were constant within cell lines from one generation to the next, while the morphological features of the cyst wall, such as calcification and spine shape, appeared to be phenotypically plastic.