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Trophic ecology of Sargassum-associated fishes in the Gulf of Mexico determined from stable isotopes and fatty acids



Trophic ecology of Sargassum-associated fishes in the Gulf of Mexico determined from stable isotopes and fatty acids



ine Ecology Progress Series 313: 249-259



Natural dietary markers (stable isotopes and fatty acids) were used to determine the trophic structure and characterize carbon source(s) of juvenile and adult fishes associated with floating Sargassum in mid-shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Stable carbon isotope ratios ([delta]13C) of 4 autotrophs (Cladophora sp., phytoplankton (based on particulate organic matter, POM), S. fluitans, S. natans) were distinct (range -16.3 to -21.0[per mill]), with S. fluitans and S. natans enriched by 2 to 5[per mill] relative to Cladophora sp. and POM. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios ([delta]15N) of both S. fluitans and S. natans were depleted by 5 to 7[per mill] compared to Cladophora sp. and POM. The majority of VC values of consumers were between-16 and-18[per mill], and VC values were most depleted for juvenile shrimps, juvenile crabs and certain juvenile fishes (e.g. Aluterus heudeloti, Monacanthus hispidus, Abudefduf saxatilis, Histrio histrio, Seriola dumerih). Stable carbon isotope ratios of adult fishes varied from -16.1 to -17.5[per mill]. Enrichment of [delta]15N occurred with increasing trophic position, and the lowest values were observed for juvenile crustaceans, which ranged from 6.0 to 8.7[per mill]. The majority of juvenile fishes were secondary heterotrophs ([delta]15N values ca. 8.0 to 11.0[per mill]), while most adult fishes were tertiary consumers with [delta]15N values ranging from 11.9 to 14.3[per mill]. Carbon source estimates from a 2-source mixing model indicated that the 78% of organic matter supplied to consumers (pooled across taxa) in the Sargassum complex was derived from POM. Fatty acid signatures of the primary producers were significantly different, and were used to further evaluate organic matter contribution to Sargassum-associated consumers. C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (22:6n-3, 22:5n-3) were most abundant in POM, while high levels of C18 and C20 PUFAs were observed for Cladophora sp. and Sargassum spp. (18:2n-6 and 20:4n-6, respectively). Consumer signatures were dominated by 22:6n-3, and principal component analysis indicated that fatty acid signatures of each of the 6 juvenile and 6 adult fish species were highly similar to POM and distinct from the other producers within the Sargassum complex.

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