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Chemistry of butter and butter making II. The nature of the fatty materials in buttermilk and the significance of certain buttermilk testing methods



Chemistry of butter and butter making II. The nature of the fatty materials in buttermilk and the significance of certain buttermilk testing methods



Iowa Agric Exp Sta Res Bull 175: 1-64



The authors extracted the fatty substances of buttermilk in quantities sufficient for analysis by means of a modified Rose-Gottlieb method; calculated the phospholipin, total fat, olein (unsaturated fat), and saturated fat contents of these extracts; and estimated the sterol content. Analysis of the Rose-Gottlieb extracts showed that 3/4 of this material was fat, which, together with the apparent existence of the phospholipins in combination with proteins in milk, indicates that such measures as would reduce churning losses would not incorporate, into the butter, materials that would cause its more rapid deterioration. The Rose-Gottlieb extract of the buttermilk contained phospholipins to the extent of 0.152% of the wt. of the buttermilk. The standard deviation of the phospholipin analyses was 0.0197%; this represents seasonal variation. The variation of the quantity of phospholipin which was extracted with the Rose-Gottlieb method was 0.0825% of the buttermilks when the fat % of the creams from which they were obtained ranged from 20 to 40%; that for a variation in cream test from 27.5 to 32.5% was 0.017% phospholipin. An estimate of the true fat content of buttermilk can be made with slightly greater precision by applying a correction factor to the Mojonnier or Rose-Gottlieb tests than by centrifugal testing methods. The materials read as fat by the Babcock, the American Assoc, and the Minnesota tests for buttermilk were analyzed for fat, ether-soluble acid materials, phospholipins, and ether-insoluble, water-soluble materials. Approx. 35% of the difference between the Babcock and the Rose-Gottlieb or Mojonnier methods was due to phospholipins and sterols read as fat by the ether extraction methods; the other 65% was caused by smallness of the fat particles of buttermilk. These extremely small particles cannot be centrifuged into the necks of the test bottle. . . . . If the creamery-man keeps in mind in using the Amer. Assoc. or Minn. tests that not the test of his buttermilk but the % total fat lost is the important consideration he may use either test equally well. In so doing, however, he should bear in mind that the figure representing efficient churning will vary with the testing method. Equations comparing the Mojonnier, Minn., Amer. Assoc., and Babcock tests are given.

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