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Combating apple mildew and other fungous and animal enemies of fruit trees

Combating apple mildew and other fungous and animal enemies of fruit trees

Angewandte Botanik 8(3): 146-167

Report of several years of experimentation to determine the active fungicidal and insecticidal components of carbolineum. The separate components (hydrocarbons, phenols, bases), separately and in various combinations, were sprayed on apple trees in July, as emulsions with castor oil potash soap. In certain concentrations, all caused definite abscission of leaves, without bud injury. Fungicidal effects were lacking except in the phenols but were not striking even here. Further laboratory experiments upon living spores of Podosphaera leucotricha, Fusicladium dendriticum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilia fructigena demonstrated that the hydrocarbon had no sporicidal effect, but in some cases delayed germination. Phenols with boiling points up to 230[degree]C. had much less sporicidal effect than those with boiling points of 230-320[degree]C. In greenhouse experiments with a special preparation, "Pomastin," manufactured with the results of the foregoing experiments in view, 5 of 11 sprayed apple plants remained free from mildew, while 4 of 6 un-sprayed plants were badly mildewed. Tested on apple twigs infested with woolly aphis (Schizoneura), phenols with low boiling points were harmful to sound wood at effective concentrations; those with boiling points above 240[degree]C. gave increased insecticidal action with no injury to healthy wood. Extensive field experiments in apple orchards with Pomastin as a winter spray gave satisfactory mildew control. A substance was developed and named "Pomastin S" which killed the mildew fungus and Fusicladium on living leaves without injury to foliage; the protective activity, however, is short-lived. It is believed that the fungicidal effect is due to withdrawal of O from the mycelium; the effect on insect eggs, to caustic action upon the chitin shell.

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