Combinations of Asian influenza virus and adenovirus vaccine in the prophylaxis of respiratory illness of Navy recruits. II
Stille, W.T.; Schultz, I.; Gundelfinger, B.F.; Miller, L.F.
American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 52: 275-289
Both vaccines and placebo controls were studied in 12,500 men in the 6 months after the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957. Infections by both viruses were demonstrable throughout most of this period. Influenza vaccine, sub-cutaneously, was as efficacious as vaccine given intracutaneously (in 2 sites), in preventing the reporting febrile respiratory illness to sick call. Since influenza vaccination was associated with about 15% relative reduction in severe reported illness rates, and since influenza infection occurred in an estimated 13% of these illnesses, this vaccine was estimated to be 100% intrinsically efficacious. Adenovirus vaccine was associated with about 48% relative reduction but since adenovirus infections occurred in 71% of the illnesses, the intrinsic efficacy of this vaccine was estimated at 68%. Men selected at random, without regard for illness status, had similar rates of illness from one vaccine group to the other. It is concluded that neither vaccine nor their combination actually prevents illness; the effect of vaccination seems to be ameliorative. Several new procedures for evaluating vaccines singly and in combination are illustrated and compared to methods which they should replace.