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Die Diagnose der Huhnerpest

Die Diagnose der Huhnerpest

Zeitschrift für Infektionskrankheiten, Parasitäre Krankheiten und Hygiene der Haustiere 59(1-2): 42-53

ISSN/ISBN: 0931-4474

The clinical and postmortem findings described by other investigators of the disease are reviewed. Deaths arc often so sudden and so numerous as to suggest poisoning. Diagnosis is not always easily made. Bacterial infections and spirochetosis can be differentiated by cultures and microscopic exams. Pest is likewise suspected when such birds as guinea fowl, peacock, geese, ducks and pheasants arc affected. Such wide spread disease would tend to differentiate it from all other infections and especially fowl cholera. The course of pest is less rapid than that of acute fowl cholera. In pest the birds are usually sick for 4-5 days. They appear to have more of a sleeping sickness and exhibit more difficulty with respiration, and may develop gasping symptoms. This would indicate an involvment of the upper respiratory tract similar to that observed in pox and A-avitaminosis. The author could not confirm the observation that edema of the head and neck, or a gray-green diarrhea, are satisfactory evidence of this disease. The pathological anatomy is very important in the diagnosis of fowl pest. The hemorrhagic areas which develop at the tips of the glands in the mucus membrane of the proventriculus are not as characteristic as some believe. This was a characteristic development in but 9 of 33 exptl. birds. Petechial hemorrhages are quite characteristic but not always diagnostic. These areas are about the size of flea bites and are usually developed in the mucosa and serosa. Such hemorrhages were observed in the serosa of the pleura and pericardium and in the ventricles of the heart and on the lungs. However, they were observed on the base of the heart in but 15 of 33 exptl. birds. The appearance of the ovary was usually quite characteristic. The blood vessels supplying it were heavily congested and exhibit punctiform hemorrhages. There was also a peritonitis with yellowish fluid in the cavity. Occasionally a slimy exudate collected in the trachea. Since this accumulation is often observed after the bird has been dead some time, only birds freshly dead of the disease should be studied for diagnostic purposes. Sections of the brain show congestion of the blood vessels. When laboratory animals are used for diagnostic purposes the pigeon and rabbit are most important since they are highly sensitive to fowl cholera but quite resistant to fowl pest. To make a very certain diagnosis it is necessary for the investigator to be familiar with, and to consider all aspects of the disease. This includes especially a knowledge of the pathological anatomy.

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