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Evaluation of Red Cross gamma globulin as a prophylactic agent for poliomyelitis Final report of results based on clinical diagnoses



Evaluation of Red Cross gamma globulin as a prophylactic agent for poliomyelitis Final report of results based on clinical diagnoses



Journal American Medicine Assoc 5: 1272-1285



Red Cross gamma globulin, in an avg. dose of 0.14 cc./lb. of body wt., in controlled field tests in 3 epidemic areas was shown to give highly significant protection against paralytic poliomyelitis. These conclusions are based on 104 cases of paralytic disease occurring among approx. 55,000 children, half of whom received gamma globulin and half gelatin. The period of follow-up was 14 wks. Cases occurring during the 1st wk. following the injn. of gamma globulin were significantly modified in severity. During the next period of 4 wks. a high, but not complete, degree of protection was demonstrated. During the 6th to the 8th wk. after injn. the protection appeared to be waning, and none was detectable after the 8th week. To substantiate the validity of the controls, data was examined to determine whether there was any evidence to suggest that inoculations of gelating had localized or provoked paralysis. No such evidence was found. In fact, when the combined results in all areas were examined, protection by gamma globulin was so marked, the extent of the study sufficiently large, and the epidemics selected of such major proportions that controls who also received injns. were not essential to demonstrate simple protection. These findings on passive prophylaxis are discussed in relation to their impact on developments in the field of active immunization. This appears to be where their principal value lies, for there are many limitations and disadvantages in the practical application of extensive passive prophylaxis. Inasmuch as gamma globulin is the only agent that has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the prevention of poliomyelitis, recommendations are offered regarding dosage and methods of admn. In view of the current limitation of supply several possible means of using gamma globulin on a family and community basis are presented. Limitations in knowledge restrict the scope of sound recommendations to a few broad categories covering widely divergent conditions.

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Accession: 024638297

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PMID: 13034471


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