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Les mammiferes pleistocenes de la Republique de l'Equateur



Les mammiferes pleistocenes de la Republique de l'Equateur



Mem Soc Geol France 66: 1-391



This report is based chiefly upon the author's own collections made during 4 yrs. he was attached to the Lab. Paleontol. of the Natl. Polytechnic School of Ecuador at Quito, 1946-1950. Comparatively little fossil mammal material had previously been available in Ecuador, most of the earlier discoveries having been carried out elsewhere. The history of previous explorations is reviewed, with lists of spp. found by earlier workers. There is a lengthy discussion of the various deposits and their stratigraphy. Ecuador is divided naturally into 3 zones, the inter-Andean, the western or coastal region, and the eastern or Amazon region. In the inter-Andean zone, collections were made from 33 localities, which are descr., most of the faunas being called Puninian or Chichean. The most important region of the coastal zone, for richness of fossils, is in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, at La Carolina. Several other fossiliferous localities were in the basin of the Rio Daule and on the island of Puna, at the mouth of the Guayas. The author was unable to do any serious paleontological exploration in the Amazonian region. The specimens here descr. belong to 7 orders and 14 families. In each group, lists are given of present-day representatives in Ecuador. Since most previous study of S. American Pleistocene mammals has been based upon forms from the pampas of Argentina, descrs. are here given not only of new forms but also of spp. previously named by other authors but not properly descr. Detailed synonymy and taxonomic discussion are included in each case. Marsupials are represented only by an undetd. sp. of Didelphidae. Insectivora are not represented here. Chiroptera, very numerous in the present-day fauna, must have lived in some of the regions studied, in the upper Pleistocene, but no remains were found. No primates have been found in the regions so far explored, either. Edentata are represented by an undetd. sp. of Megalonychidae, Eremotherium carolinense, E. elense, Glossotherium (G.) tropicorum, G. (Oreomylodon) wegneri. Scelidotherium (? Scelidodon) reyesi, Propraopus magnus. and Chlamytherium occidentale, all descr. in extreme detail, with discussion of relationships, distr., history of the finds (numerous fragmentary specimens being represented in each case), taxonomic discussion, etc. The presence of lagomorphs in the Pleistocene of Ecuador, though probable, is not yet proved. The Rodentia descr. here include Proechimys sp., Drytomomys aequatorialis, and Neochoerus sirasakae, the last being redescr. from the original material. Carnivora include Dusicyon (D.) sechurae ssp. elenensis, D. (D) culpaeus ssp. cf. riveti, Protocyon orcesi, Felis (Puma) platensis, Panthera (Jaguarius) onca ssp. andina, and Smilodon sp. Proboscidea include Cuvieronius hyodon, accepted as the correct name for Cuvier's "mastodon of the Cordilleras," HAPLOMASTODON (Gomphotheriidae) raised from subgeneric rank with type H. chimborazi (Masthodon c. Proano), H. (ALEAMASTODON) guayasensis, and several undetd. mastodons. Perissodactyta include Onohippidium sp. Equus (Amerhippus) andium (new rank for Amerhippus Hoffstetter 1950 based on E. andium), E. (A.) santae-elenae (Neohippus s.-e. Spillman), and E. (A.) martinei (N. m. Spillman). Artiodactyla include Palaeolama reissi. P. aequatorialis, P. crassa, Odocoileus peruvianus ssp. cf. ustus, O. salinae, AGALMACEROS (Cervidae) with type A. blicki (Blastocerus b. Frick), and Mazama ? rufina. This material from Ecuador belongs essentially to 3 faunistic assemblages. The Chichean fauna is most incompletely known. It contains a horse and paleolama which are extremely heavy, apparently very specialized animals which differentiated in the Andes. Their ancestors are not known, and they seem to have become extinct before the 3d glaciation, without leaving any direct descendants. The Puninian fauna includes 14 of the spp. studied here. It seems to be partly derived from that of Tarija, from which it is distinguished by being more recent and more southern. The Carolinian fauna includes 18 spp., many of which seem to be endemic, showing a decided tropical character, and belonging to the Upper Pleistocene. Some of the genera included there are found w. of the Andes for the 1st time. The importance of further research in the intertropical zone of S. America is pointed out, considering the volume of results obtained here from exploration of a relatively narrow stratigraphic range. The Tertiary of the littoral zone of Ecuador is almost exclusively marine, but the inter-Andean and Amazonian regions will undoubtedly yield rich results. Bibliography of 312 titles.

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