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Phloem necrosis of coffee in Surinam

Phloem necrosis of coffee in Surinam

Phytopath Zeitschr 4(1): 65-82

The disease effects the soft bast of roots and stem but not of branches. The first anatomical symptom is the sudden death of all the sieve tubes of the soft bast, whereupon the cambium forms only multiple divided sieve tubes. These die after a short time and their walls become impregnated with wound gum as do those of the dead primary sieve tubes. The phloem parenchyma seems quite normal. Some weeks before the primary sieve tubes cease to function (as happens later also with the multiple divided sieve tubes) they are filled with flagellates, which belong to the genus Phytomonas. The first clear external disease symptoms appear shortly after the primary sieve tubes of the soft bast have died. The disease can be carried to healthy trees from grafts of diseased roots but not from grafts of branches or water sprouts. The incubation time was 5 mos. Proof of the primary pathogenicity of Phytomonas has not been concluded because it has not yet been possible to culture the flagellate on the media for protozoa thus far tried.

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