Results and prospects for the acclimatization of game animals into Kazakhstan

Sludskn, A.A.; Afanas'ev, Y.G.

Tr Inst Zool Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr 23: 5-74


Accession: 025396723

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Under conditions prevailing in Kazakhstan on 1 Oct. 1963, an attempt was made to introduce, relntroduce, or widen the range of 24 mammal species and subspecies (3 lagomorphs, 5 rodents, 5 carnivores, 11 ungulates) and 8 bird species. As a result, the following were introduced: muskrat (Ondatra zibethlca). mink (Mustela vison Schr.). common raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon-dog (Nyctereutes procyonotdes). axis deer (Cervus nlppon hortulorum), European bison (Bison bonasus), Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus). Previous ranges of the following have been extended: Sciurus vulgaris exalbldus Pallas, large-toothed souslik (Cltellus fulvus), sable (Martes zlbellina), Caspian deer (Cervus elaphus maral), and Parmir argali (Ovis ammon polii). Work has been done on broadening the ranges of Menzbier's marmot (Marmota marmota menzbieri Kash-karoy), saiga (Saiga tatarlca), goltered gazelle (Gazella aubgutturosa Guldenstaedt), Siberian ibex (Capra ibex sibirica Pallas), pheasant (Phaslanus colchicus), common partridge (Perdix perdix), and the little brown dove (Streptapa.Ha senegalensis). Many of the animals which have been introduced have become the objects of hunting and in some years their pelts give more than 60% of all the furs produced in terms of money. In the last 10 years fur production has more than doubled in Kazakhstan. Unsuccessful introduction of animals can be accounted for by: (1) attempts to introduce animals whose ecology is not well known and to release them in unsuitable places (the nutria on the SyrDarya, the raccoon-dog in the mountains); (2) the release of animals in small groups [Menzbier's marmot Lepus europaeus, and the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus)!; (3) the release of species known to be unsuitable for a certain locality [the domestic rabbit, the nutria in the Altai, the guinea fowl (Numida meleagrls) and golden and silver pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus and Genneus nycthemerus)! or in undersirable localities [the wild boar (Sub scrofa) on Barsa-Kel'mes Island]. Animals which have been introduced have not become pests. The authors recommend that additional studies be made to determine the feasibility and expediency of introducing the Virginia opossum (Didelphys virginiana). skunk (Mephitis mephitis), chinchilla, Turkestan red deer (Cervus elaphus bactrianus Lydekker), Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas), some subspecies of the mouflon (Ovis musimom Pallas), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii Poliakov), elk (AlceTalces). fallow deer (Pama vulgaris), chamois (Ruplcapra ruplcapra), goral (Naemorhaedus goral), and more than 10 ungulate species into various regions in Kazakhstan. 18 schematic maps of localities where animals were introduced.