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Studies on the cytology of yeasts. V. Normal and abnormal mitoses in a distillery yeast

Studies on the cytology of yeasts. V. Normal and abnormal mitoses in a distillery yeast

Proceedings Nation Inst Science India 14(9): 389-405

A critical analysis of the observations of earlier workers suggests that many of the claims of identification of a nucleus in yeast are not valid. The various stages of division are descr. and illustrated from Carnoy-iron hematoxylin, as well as Feulgen prepns. Mitotic aberrations are common and give rise to nuclei with 2 and 6, or 5 and 3 chromosomes. The chromosomes during normal and abnormal mitoses show somatic pairing and exhibit a duplex structure. Criteria for identification of heterochromatin in chromosomes are discussed and it is shown that there are no chances for confusion in the identification of heterochromatin in the chromosomes of the distillery yeast, since they show (1) heteropycnosis at early prophase, (2) reversal of staining during late prophase, and (3) another reversal of staining during telophase. The possibility of polyploidy in yeasts requires serious consideration, since many of the strains used in industry are sterile. Sterility is probably due to auto-polyploidy. Evidence in favor of the above interpretation is afforded by the attraction between all the chromosomes in the distillery yeast. "Somatic synapsis" seems to occur during early prophase stages. Normal separation of chromatids necessarily depends on a lapsing of the pairing force during the metaphase. If the timing of this loss does not synchronize in all the chromatids, or if there is a pre-cocious resumption of the pairing force between sister chromatids or groups of sister chromosomes, while separation into daughter groups is beginning, the result will be a mitotic aberration giving rise to daughter nuclei with different numbers of chromosomes. The presence of one or more mutant genes in some of the chromosomes may explain the differences in the pairing force between groups of chromatids, resulting in irregularities of mitosis.

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