+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Swollen Shoot, a new virus disease of the cacao tree in West Africa



Swollen Shoot, a new virus disease of the cacao tree in West Africa



Rev Internat Bot Appl Et Agric Trop 26(283/-284): 166-173



In 1936, Stevens found that the disease called Swollen Shoot was caused by virus, although its effects had long been observed. Symptoms appear chiefly on the branchlets and leaves. The branchlets show a swelling caused by hyperplasia of the cambium; the leaves show various mosaic patterns. Accordingly as the virus operates alone or simultaneously with others, English workers distinguished 8 vars.[long dash]New Juaben, Bosa, Kpcve, Nkaw-kaw, Croton stouns, Wiawso, Kobuso, and an unnamed var. Transmission seems to be effected by insects of the eoccid group: Ferrisiana virgata (for New Juaben and Bosa), Pseudococcus exitiabilis (for New Juaben) and P. atri (for Kpeve and Nkaw-kaw). Diffusion is very slow but sure; no tree in an infected area can permanently escape. The disease is reported in various countries of W. Africa. The only control utilized is the destruction of affected trees. Investigations are under way to find other means of control, such as preventive inoculation with the mild var. Bosa, the isolation of vars. which endure the disease, and towards the possibility of rejuvenescence of the plantations.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 025625691

Download citation: RISBibTeXText


Related references

A new virus disease of Cacao in West Africa: swollen shoot. Rer. Bot. appl 26: 283-284, 166-173, 1946

The virus complex causing swollen shoot disease of Cacao in West Africa. F.A.O. Plant Prot. Bull, 8: 6, 65-69, 1960

The identity of a mealybug vector of swollen shoot virus disease of cacao in West Africa. Bull Ent Res 36(3): 305-313, 1945

The strains of cacao swollen shoot virus occurring in West Africa. Proceedings of the West African International Cacao Research Conference held at the West African Cacao Research Institute, Tafo, Gold Coast, 1953. 20-21, 1953

Swollen shoot, a new virus disease of cacao in western Africa. Rev. Bot. Appl 26: 166-73, 1946

The Control of Cacao Swollen Shoot Disease in West Africa. A Review of the present Situation. Tech. Bull. W. Afr. Cocoa Res. Inst, London, 4, 36, 1958

Detection and comparison of some ghanaian isolates of cacao swollen shoot virus by elisa and immunoelectron microscopy using an antiserum to cacao swollen shoot virus strain 1a. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 114(1): 79-89, 1985

The ecology of Cacao viruses. I. The role of wild hosts in the incidence of swollen shoot virus in West Africa. J. appl. Ecol, 8: 2, 491-5, 1971

The ecology of cacao Tirases. I. The role of wild hosts in the incidence of swollen shoot virus in West Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology, Department of Forestry, Oxford University, UK., 8: 2, 491-495, 1971

The cacao swollen shoot disease complex in West Africa comprises at least five divergent badnavirus species. Phytopathology 108(10), 2018

The ecology of cacao d viruses part 1 the role of wild hosts in the incidence of swollen shoot virus in west africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 8(2): 491-495, 1971

Swollen shoot, a disease of the cacao tree. Agron. Trop 4: 564-78, 1949

The Previously Unidentified, Divergent Badnavirus Species Cacao red vein-banding virus is Associated with Cacao Swollen Shoot Disease in Nigeria. Plant Disease 103(6): 1302-1308, 2019

The virus disease of Cacao, swollen shoot. Rev. Mycologie. 12: 3, 64-70, 1947

The virus disease of cacao trees, swollen shoot. REV MYCOL [PARIS] 12(Suppl colon 2): 64-70, 1947