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The direct perception of X-rays by the human visual sense

The direct perception of X-rays by the human visual sense

Vision Res 4(3/4): 251-296

Quantum statistical calculations were made to determine the energy conversion during direct visibility of X-rays. The experiments concern the voltage range between 70 and 100 kV. During the summation time about 50 X-ray quanta are needed for the visibility threshold. The laws of Ricco, Bunsen and Roscoe, Graham and Margaria, i.e. concerning the influence of area and time of stimulation, were also confirmed for direct X-ray perception. The summation time is in the range of 40 msec. The biological Schwarzschild exponent calculated by M. Monje for visible light (0.7 for larger and 0.5 for smaller stimulus areas) also exists for direct X-ray perception. In order to produce a constant effect in a single retinal element, a somewhat lower energy is needed than that given in a single X-ray quantum of 0.4 A. For all calculations of reginal energy conversion in the X-ray range, the photoelectrical model of Autrum and Esper is very useful. Such a model is also helpful in estimating formal exposured areas.

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