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The principles of maize breeding and the initial results achieved with them in the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union

The principles of maize breeding and the initial results achieved with them in the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union

Acta Agron Acad Sci Hungaricae 6(1-2): 169-179

The work is described which in respect of maize breeding has been carried on since 1944 in the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Endeavors aiming at acclimatizing maize in the more northern districts, are based upon I. V. Michurin s teachings concerning the acclimatization of plants. In this work, Siberian varieties, improved varieties of Rostov and Kharkov, Roumanian, Hungarian, and Italian improved varieties are involved. Some 20 varieties have been crosspollinated and from the material obtained, rich in hereditary characters, the new varieties are being produced by strictly directed selection, including systematic training. While the maternal parent varieties retain their type to a large extent, from the hybrids there arises new material which matures earlier, is more powerfully developed and of a greater productivity than the initial varieties. To facilitate the work in hand a few theoretical questions have been clarified. The chances for shortening the vegetative period have been studied in 9 varieties of Roumanian origin. One of them ripened in time, 5 reached the milk stage, while 3 proved to be too late. With the first 6 varieties 4 years sufficed to have the vegetative period reduced by 10 to 23 days. The result is that 5 varieties which formerly had to be harvested in the milk stage, are now harvested as waxy maize. In its development maize can be considerably accelerated by short-day treatment. Five hybrids produced in the Institute have shown on an average over 3 years that they are good yielders. With a view to producing inbred hybrids, the 1st trial crosses were performed in 1955.

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