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The scientific principles of grain storage. 13. The grain weevils. 14. Some grain beetles. 15. The moth pests of grain. 16. Mites as pests of stored grain



The scientific principles of grain storage. 13. The grain weevils. 14. Some grain beetles. 15. The moth pests of grain. 16. Mites as pests of stored grain



Milling liverpool 108(1-2-4-6): 2-4, 30-31, 84-85, 88, 135-137



(13) Brief descriptions and detailed life histories are given for Calandra granaria (Granary weevil) and C. oryzae (Rice weevil). By eating out the endosperm of kernels, the larvae cause more damage throughout the world than any other grain pest. Rice weevils tolerate higher temperatures and extend further into tropics, where their ability to fly enables them to infest ripening grain.[long dash](14). Brief descriptions and life histories are given for: Rhizopertha dominica (Lesser grain borer), of which adults are voracious feeders, as well as larva, and make large irregular holes which eventually break up the grains; Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Saw tooth grain beetle), which is not a major pest because it lives only on small fragments; Lemophloeus spp. (Red rust grain beetle, etc.), which live more successfully on flour but occasionally damage wheat when larva eat out the germ but not the endosperm; Tribolium spp. (Flour beetles) and Latheticus oryzae (Long headed flour beetle), which occur chiefly in flour and are secondary pests of grain because they feed on fragments produced by primary pests such as weevils.[long dash] (15). Brief descriptions and life histories are given for: Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth), larva of which develop within the endosperm from eggs layed on ripening grain in warm climates; Tinea granella (Corn or European grain moth), of which larvae live freely and spin webbing which binds surface grains loosely; Ephestia elutella (Cacao moth), of which eggs are layed in summer and larvae eat germs of about 48 kernels during its life, and subsequently pupate forming mat of webbing on surface of grain piles.[long dash](16). Distinguishing characteristics of Tyroglyphus farinae, Glycy-phagus destructor, Cheyletus eruditus, and Gamasid mites are given. Mites, like spiders, have 8 legs, and larva and adults are similar. They are sensitive to relative humidity, cannot live in grain below 13% moisture, live but do not increase at 14%, and increase rapidly only at 16 to 18% moisture. Zones of dampness too small to cause heating may initiate severe and spreading infestation. Mites eat germs, impart a characteristic odor, and may pass through the mill and infest mill products.

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