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The vascular system of the chick embryo. HI. On the problem of septation of the heart bulb and trunk in chick embryos



The vascular system of the chick embryo. HI. On the problem of septation of the heart bulb and trunk in chick embryos



Ceskoslovenska Morfol 7(1): 1-20



The dead heart is substantially smaller than the living one. It differs from the latter by a conspicuously uneven inner surface and by a slight rotation in the region of the atrioventricular groove. The morphogenesis of the heart trunk and bulb was studied in a steady detailed development series with exact time dates from 2de., (de = day embryonic) 18 hours to 7de, 8 hours. The phase of elongation of the growing heart bulb lasts from 2de, 19 hours to 4de, 16 hours. Its bayonet form is pronounced between 3de, 16 hours and 4de, 16 hours only, almost disappearing at 5de, 8 hours. From 4de, 20 hours till 5de, 12 hours, a 2d growth-phase of the bulb into the width appears together with its shortening. The heart trunk is simultaneously divided by a septum with growth ventrally from right and above, so that both the pulmonary and aortic trunks lie side by side in the frontal plane. The fusion of different parts of the interventricular septum is completed between 5de, 16 hours and 7de, 8 hours. The cushion-shaped valvular mechanisms, develop primarily in the heart bulb. These mechanisms secondarily take part in the bulbar septation when their function ends due to the shortening and brightening of the heart bulb. This distal ventral bulbar cushion fulfills its valvular function till 4de, when this function is substituted by the proximal bulbar cushions. From 4de, 16 hours this function is definitely taken by the valvular protion of the distal bulbar cushions. The dorsal distal bulbar cushion 1st appears distinctly at 4 de, 16 hours, and soon divides similarly to the ventral distal cushion into a valvular and septal portions, probably under the influence of the blood-stream. The distal lateral bulbar cushions distinctly appear also at 4 de, 16 hours, the left anteceding. The proximal bulbar cushions refurbish in their valvular phase, the semilunar valves, by concavities at their distal ends. In the phase of their reduction (5 de, 8-20 hours), and their transformation into the proximal part of the bulbar septum, they are deformed and dor-soventrally narrowed, probably by the influence of the blood-stream. A proximal interstitial cushion is found in some instances, between 4 de, 16 hours and 5 de, 20 hours. The division of the bulboventricular part of the heart loop, is partly caused by the sagitally situated truncal septum, which fuses with the distal bulbar (ventral and dorsal) cushions, but does not continue far in the bulb. Ostia arteriosa formed in this manner are primarily situated side by side, aorta on the right. The fused atrioventricular tubercles take a great part in closure of the so-called defect of the interventricular septum. In embryos 6 de, 16 hours old, (heavier than 0.60 g), the rest of the interventricular defect persists in 25% of cases as a hairlike opening without any hemodynamical significance. The closure is completed at 7 de, 8 hours.

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