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Two types of immunity in experimental typhoid; cellular immunity and humoral immunity

Two types of immunity in experimental typhoid; cellular immunity and humoral immunity

Keio J Med 14(2): 45-60

The immunizing properties of two vaccines, live and killed Salmonella, were studied by inoculation of mice. The live vaccine contained R-type Salmonella enteritidis of mild virulence which did not produce O-antibodies in mice. The killed vaccine was made from a highly virulent strain of S. enteritidis with specific O- antigens. Both vaccines were injected at 3-4 days intervals. Secondary septicemia occured 5 days after inoculation with killed vaccine. The progress of systemic infection before secondary septicemia developed was studied by the cultivation of homogenized organs or body fluids of mice sacrificed at periodic intervals after challenge. Marked clearance of infecting bacteria occured early in mice immunized with killed vaccine, but not in those immunized with live vaccine. This early clearance seems to be due to specific O-antibodies or humoral immunity representing an extracellular antibacterial mechanism. Mice immunized with live vaccine usually survived in spite of the absence of early clearance which seems indicative of a cellular type of immunity which inhibits the extracellular multiplication of bacteria with no apparent relationship to the existence of specific antibodies. Peritoneal macrophages from mice were used to determine the capability of different strains of Salmonella to multiply intracellularly. A close degree of relationship was found to exist between the virulence for animals and the degree of intracellular multiplication. The intracellular multiplication of a virulent strain was definitely inhibited by macrophages derived from mice immunized with live vaccine regardless of whether or not a high titer of O-antibody immune serum was present. The agent of humoral immunity appears to function as an opsonin and is present in the immune globulin fraction in proportion to the activity of O-agglutinin. The nature of cellular immunity is not clear; however, it doesn't appear to be caused by cell bound antobody as demonstrated by the effect of R-type strain with low virulence which didn't produce O-antibodies (in contrast to studies that used S-type avirulent strains producing antibodies). Cellular immunity can be conferred only by live vaccine.

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Accession: 026027779

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PMID: 5827250

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